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  • Nuisance Exotic Species

    Prioritization & Alternatives

    Presented by Laura Morris - February 25th, 2015

    2015 Central Florida Invasive Species Workshop

  • 1. Classification and Nomenclature

    2. Why Prioritization?

    3. Alternatives

    Overview

  • Definitions: 1. Native - a plant present within Florida at the time of European

    contact (early sixteenth century - 1513).

    2. Non-native (Exotic)* - a plant that has been introduced to Florida from outside its native range, either purposefully or accidentally.

    ▪ 3. Naturalized - a plant that has been introduced to a new

    geographic region (by humans or other) and is reproducing and expanding beyond the original introduced location.

    4. Nuisance or Invasive - a plant that is expanding its range and disrupting native plant communities. This term is generally applied to exotic species, but native plants (i.e. cattail (Typha spp.) can also be considered a nuisance plant within restoration projects. Often referred to as Invasive Exotics. * Follows the classification of the Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (University of South Florida (USF)

    Classification and Nomenclature

  • Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPCC): ▪ Category I - Invasive exotic plants that alter native plant communities by

    displacing native species, changing community structures or ecological functions, or hybridizing with natives. (Definition does not rely on the economic severity or geographic range of the problem, but on the documented ecological damage caused.)

    ▪ Category II - Invasive exotics that have increased in abundance or frequency but have not yet altered Florida plant communities to the extent shown by Category I species. These species may become Category I if ecological damage is demonstrated.

    www.fleppc.org List is Compiled by Professional Botanists & Others every 2 Yrs.

    Classification and Nomenclature

  • Where’s Waldo?

  • 1. Species # and Identification

    Why Prioritization?

  • References found in: 1 - https://h2oncoast.files.wordpress.com/2009/08/invasive_curve.jpg ,

    Recognition of the Invasion

  • Wetlands Uplands

    Identification of Our Target Species

  • Case by Case

    Identification of Our Target Species

  • 1. Species # and Identification

    2. Management Concerns

    Why Prioritization?

  • $ Economics $

    4,200

    “Restoration practitioners miss an opportunity when they divert funds to the eradication, containment, or control of aliens that might in fact be benign players or, in some cases, allies in the restoration process.” Ewel & Putz (2004)

    Additional references found in: Antonio & Meyerson (2002), FDACS – Coile (2002), FWC Invasive Plant Management Annual Report (2011-12), & Langland et. al. (2008)

    Management Concerns

    31%

    69%

    USF Plant Atlas Florida Plants

    NATIVE NON-NATIVE

  • Overspray / Overuse of Herbicides

     Non-Invasive, Non-native species not typically found in monocultures  Opens niche for truly invasive species  Herbicide resistance

    “Unnecessary collateral damage can be caused by attempts to eradicate innocuous alien species.” - Ewel & Putz (2004)

    Additional references found in: Luken (1997), SER Primer (2004), Langeland, et.al. (2011), Miller et. al. (2010), & Hutchinson, et. al. (2007)

    Management Concerns

  • Loss of Biodiversity

     Sustainability  Unwanted & Unintended Impacts on Native Species  Cultural Landscape

    “However, not all exotic species are harmful. Indeed, some even fulfill ecological roles formerly played by the native species that have become rare or extirpated.” – SER Primer

    Additional references found in: Zavaleta, et. al. (2001), Chapin et. al. (2000), SER Primer (2004), Clewell & Aronson (2013), & Smith et. al. (2010)

    Management Concerns

  • Logistics

     Equipment

    • Contamination • Disturbance (soils, plants, etc..)

     Location • Access

     Safety Concerns

    “Management of invasive vegetation in natural areas requires control methods that will minimize damage to non-target vegetation and soil.” – Langeland et. al. (2011)

    Additional references found in: Fisher et. al. (2009) & Miller et. al. (2010)

    Management Concerns

    *

    *

    *

    • Photo Courtesy of Applied Aquatics

  • Misidentification

     Very Common  Increased Risk

    Additional references found in: Langland et. al. (2008)

    Management Concerns

  • Misidentification:

    www.florida.plantatlas.usf.edu

    GIANT BRISTLEGRASS (Setaria magna ) & ELEPHANTGRASS (Pennisetum purpureum )

    Management Concerns

  • 1. Species # and Identification

    2. Management Concerns

    3. Invasion Focus

    Why Prioritization?

  • Where to Treat?

    References found in: 1 - http://www.inpaws.org/wp-content/uploads/invasivediag_sm.jpg, 2 - http://www.weedcenter.org/textbook/3_rados_invasion.html, 3 - (Moody & Mack 1998)

    Invasion Focus

  • When to Treat?  Seasonal Timing  Consider Flowering/Fruiting Period  Balancing a Stable Workforce

    Invasion Focus

  • Bio controls:

    Alternatives

    References found in: 1 - http://www.wired.com/2013/12/hippopotamus-ranching/, 2 - http://www.everyonelovesadachshund.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/toad.jpg,

    MONGOOSE ATTACKS!!!

  • Bio controls:

    Alternatives

    References found in: 1 - http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/beneficial/beetles/alligatorweed_flea_beetle02.jpg

  • Bio controls:

    Alternatives First Bite

  • Bio controls:

    http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/beneficial/beetles/alligatorweed_flea_beetle.htm

    Alternatives

    References found in: 1 - http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/beneficial/beetles/alligatorweed_flea_beetle02.jpg, 2- , http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/np/aquaticweeds/aquaticweeds.pdf

    Not the Alligator Flea Beetle

  • ▪Mowing

    ▪Fire

    ▪Mechanical or Hand Removal

    ▪Aggressive Planting of Native Species

    Alternatives

  • Numerous Invasive Species Sources USDA – National Invasive Species Information Center (http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/index.shtml) The National Institute of Invasive Species Science (http://www.niiss.org/cwis438/websites/niiss/Home.php?WebSiteID=1) Invasive.ORG (http://solutionsforyourlife.ifas.ufl.edu/environment/invasive_species.html) Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council (SE-EPPC) (http://www.se-eppc.org/) Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC) (http://fleppc.org/) FFWCC – Invasive Plant Mgmt. (http://www.myfwc.com/wildlifehabitats/invasive-plants/) UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants (http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/)

    http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/index.shtml http://www.niiss.org/cwis438/websites/niiss/Home.php?WebSiteID=1 http://solutionsforyourlife.ifas.ufl.edu/environment/invasive_species.html http://www.se-eppc.org/ http://fleppc.org/ http://www.myfwc.com/wildlifehabitats/invasive-plants/ http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/

  • Thank you for your time.

    Questions?

    2015 Central Florida Invasive Species Workshop Overview Classification and Nomenclature Classification and Nomenclature Where’s Waldo? Why Prioritization? Recognition of the Invasion Identification of Our Target Species Identification of Our Target Species Why Prioritization? Management Concerns Management Concerns Management Concerns Management Concerns Management Concerns Management Concerns Why Prioritization? Invasion Focus Invasion Focus Alternatives Alternatives Alternatives Alternatives Alternatives Numerous Invasive Species Sources Slide Number 26