Noninvasive neural prostheses

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<p>Slide 1</p> <p>NON INVASIVE NEURAL PROSTHESESPRESENTED BY : MUHAMMAD JAMAL KHAN12LEB207UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF:PROF. OMAR FAROOQ SIR(ELECTRONICS DEPARTMENT)</p> <p>1OUTLINE1. INTRODUCTION2. HISTORY OF NEURAL PROSTHESIS3. TYPES NEURAL PROSTHESIS 4. NON-INVASIVE TECHNIQUES5.CONTEMP0RARY AREA OF APPLICATION 6. ADVANTAGE7 DISADVANTAGE8. CONCLUSION9. REFERENCE</p> <p>2INTRODUCTIONPROSTHESIS IS DEFINED AS REPLACEMENT OF BODY PARTS SUCH AS A TOOTH, AN EYE, A FACIAL BONE , A KNEE OR ANY OTHER JOINT, A LEG, OR AN ARM.</p> <p>NEURAL PROSTHESES (NPs) ARE ASSISTIVE DEVICES THAT RESTORE FUNCTIONS LOST AS A RESULT OF NEURAL DAMAGE3HISTORY OF NEURAL PROSTHESIS</p> <p>1924, HANS BERGER, A GERMEN NEUROLOGIST WAS THE FIRST TO RECORD HUMAN BRAIN ACTIVITY. </p> <p>1970, RESEARCH ON BCIs BEGAN AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES (UCLA)</p> <p>FOLLOWING YEARS OF ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATIONS, THE FIRST NEUROPROSTHETIC DEVICES IMPLANTED IN HUMANS APPEARED IN MID OF 1990s.</p> <p>2013, DUKE UNIVERSITY RESEARCHERS SUCCESSFULLY CONNECTED THE BRAINS OF TWO RATS.. 4TYPES OF NEURAL PROSTHESISINVASIVENON-INVASIVE5 INVASIVE NEURAL PROSTHESISININVASIVE NEURAL PROSTHESIS ELECTRODES ARE IMPLANTED DIRECTLY INTO THE GREY MATTER OF THE BRAIN DURING THE NEUROSURGERY.</p> <p>BECAUSE THEY LIE IN GREY MATTER, INVASIVE DEVICES PRODUCE THE HIGHEST QUALITY SIGNALS OF BCI DEVICES AT THE SAME TIME IT CARRIES RISK ASSOCIATED WITH AN INVASIVE MEDICAL SURGERICAL PROCEDURE </p> <p> INVASIVE6NON-INVASIVE NEURAL PROSTHESISTHIS METHODOLOGY IS BASED ON THE RECORDING OF EEGs FROM THE SURFACE OF THE HEAD </p> <p>IN NON-INVASIVE PROSTHESIS ELECTRODES ARE IMPLANTED OVER THE HEAD.</p> <p>IT PROVIDES SOLUTIONS FOR PARALYZED PEOPLE FOR THE SIMPLE COMMUNICATIONS WITH EXTERNAL WORLD WITHOUT ANY SURGERY</p> <p>8NON-INVASIVE TECHNIQUESEEG (ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY)MEG (MAGNETOENCEPHALOGRAPHY)9ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY (EEG)</p> <p>EEG IS A NON-INVASIVE TECHNIQUE THAT RECORDS ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY ALONG THE SCALP. EEG MEASURES VOLTAGE FLUCTUATIONS RESULTING FROM IONIC CURRENT FLOWS WITHIN THE NEURONS OF THE BRAIN</p> <p>10ADVANTAGENON-INVASIVELOWER COSTSPORTABLEHIGH TEMPORAL RESOLUTION</p> <p>DISADVANTAGELOWER SPATIAL RESOLUTIONHIGH NOISE RATIOMAGNETOENCENCEPHALOGRAPHY(MEG)</p> <p>MEG IS A NON-INVASIVE IMAGING TECHNIQUE THAT REGISTERS THE BRAINS MAGNETIC ACTIVITY BY MEANS OF MAGNETIC INDUCTIONADVANTAGE NON-INVASIVE BETTER SPATIAL RESOLUTION (VS EEG) LOWER NOISE RATIO (VS EEG)</p> <p>DISADVANTAGE EXPENSIVE NON PORTABLE (TOO BULKY)</p> <p>ADVANTAGE OF NON-INVASIVE NEURAL PROSTHESISNON-INVASIVE NEURAL PROSTHESIS WILL HELP CREATING DIRECT COMMUNICATION PATHWAY BETWEEN A HUMAN OR ANIMAL BRAIN AND ANY EXTERNAL DEVICES LIKE COMPUTERS.</p> <p> THIS HAS PROVIDED A NEW WORK AREA FOR SCIENTISTS AND RESEARCHERS AROUND THE WORLD.</p> <p>TECHNIQUES LIKE EEG AND MEG HAVE COME INTO DISCUSSIONS SINCE THE BCI APPLICATION HAVE STARTED DEVELOPING.</p> <p>DISADVANTAGERESEARCH IS STILL IN BEGNNING STAGE..</p> <p>ETHICAL ISSUES MAY PREVENT ITS DEVELOPMENT.</p> <p>ELECTRODES OUTSIDE OF THE SKULLS CAN DETECT VERY FEW ELECTRIC SIGNSLS FROM THE BRAIN.</p> <p>THE TECHNIQUE IS COSTLY.VIRUS ATTACK MAY OCCUR TO BRAIN.</p> <p>CONTEMPORARY AREA OF APPLICATION</p> <p>HEALTH</p> <p>ALLOW PATIENTS TO CONTROL EXTERNAL DEVICES BY CHANGE IN BRAIN ACTIVITY</p> <p>ETHICAL ISSUES</p> <p>PRIVACY PROBLEMENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES</p> <p>NO ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE.</p> <p>SOCIETAL</p> <p>PROVIDE NEW LIFE TO PARALYZED PEOPLE. HELPS MAKE THEM A FUNCTIONAL MEMBER OF OUR SOCIETY.</p> <p> CONCLUSION</p> <p> OVER LAST 20 YEARS NEURAL ENGINEERING HAS EMERGED AS A NEW FIELD OF RESEARCH.</p> <p>NEURAL PROSTHESIS WILL DEFINITELY HAVE THE ABILITY TO CHANGE THE WAY A PERSON LOOKS AT THE WORLD BY GIVING PEOPLE BACK THEIR VISION AND HEARING. NEURAL PROSTHESIS IS BOON FOR PARALYZED PEOPLE.</p> <p>18 REFERENCERen Xu, Ning Jiang, Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting, Chuang Lin, Guillermo Asn Prieto, Juan C. Moreno, Jose L. Pons, Kim Dremstrup, Dario Farina, A Closed-Loop BrainComputer Interface Triggeringan Active AnkleFoot Orthosis for Inducing CorticalNeural Plasticity, Transactions on biomedical engineering, IEEE, July 2014, vol. 61, no. 7, page no. 2092-2101.Han Yuan, Bin He, BrainComputer Interfaces Using Sensorimotor Rhythms: Current State and Future Perspectives, Transactions on biomedical engineering,IEEE ,May 2014, vol. 61,no. 5,page no. 1425-1435.Stephan Waldert, Hubert Preissl, Evariste Demandt,Christoph Braun,1 Niels Birbaumer,1 Ad Aertsen and Carsten Mehring, Hand Movement Direction Decoded from MEG and EEG, The Journal of Neuroscience, Society of Neuroscience, January 23, 2008, vol. no. , no. 7,page no. 1000-1008.</p> <p>19</p>

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