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10-13 May 2009. New Opportunities in the Physics Landscape at CERN. Antiproton Decelerator (AD) Summary and Prospects. Klaus Jungmann, KVI, University of Groningen, NL. Physics Motivation Unique Possibilities Tests of Fundamental Theories Precision Measurements - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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New Opportunities in the Physics Landscape at CERNKlaus Jungmann, KVI, University of Groningen, NL

Antiproton Decelerator (AD)

Summary and Prospects

10-13 May 2009

PP? Physics Motivation Unique Possibilities Tests of Fundamental Theories Precision Measurements Novel Techniques and Instrumentation Applications High Visibility2 Physics Motivation How do we work in Physics ?

First Theory on Gravity

Sir Isaac Newton (1642 - 1727)

Basic Principles on which Scientists work in Physics 4May-June 2006FANTOM Study Week Gent 2007

A Theory is only as good as it is experimentally verified.

A Theory without experimental verification has no standing.5 Standard Model(s) in Particle Physics 3 Fundamental Forces Electromagnetic Weak Strong U(3)c x SU(2)L x U(1)Y symmetry

12 Fundamental Fermions Quarks, Leptons

13 (Gauge) Bosons g,W+, W-, Z0, H, 8 Gluons in Cosmology Big Bang

?

Standard Fundamental Physical Theory6

Excellent Description of ALL Observations However, many Open Questions Why 3 generations ? Why some 30 parameters? Why one electric charge ? What about CP violation ? Why matter-antimatter asymmetry? ..

Gravity not included No Combind Theory of Gravity and Quantum Mechanics.

Contents of the Cosmos

Whats the other 96% beyond matter ?The Standard Model(s)

Dark Matter Dark Energy 7? Grand Unificationnot yet known? GravitationStrongStrongMagnetismElectricityWeakElectro-Magnetism

Electro - WeakStandard Model

b+ne

-+N Su udd udm-zXe-?Physics within the Standard Model: complex systems, spectra, lifetimesStandard Model in Particle PhysicsPhysics outside the Standard Model: new phenomena, new particlesSpeculative Models:Supersymmetry, Cold dark matter, Tachyons, Radiative muon generation,Technicolor, Leptoquarks, Extra gauge bosons, Extra dimensions, LeftRight Symmetry, Compositeness, Lepton flavour violation, .

No Status in Physics , yet: Not Even Wrong

8

complementary approaches

Precision FrontierDirect Search Frontier

Experiments at the Frontiers of Standard Theory9 Test of Fundamental SymmetriesPrecison Measurements

Since then CERN has a HIGHLY PUBLICLY VISIBLE programon Low Energy Precision Tests of most fundamental theories

Proton and Antiproton q/m compare to 0.1 ppbClock ComparisonsProton and Antiproton gravitational accceleration equal to 1 ppm

p and pbar charge to mass ratio (circles) p and pbar inertial mass ratio (squares) Highly precise CPT & Gravity TestsPrecision requires Timepbar-p q/m 45 yearselectron g-2 60 yearsmuon g-2 45 yearsmuonium 1s-2s 15 years

Verifications of CPT SymmetryTests of particle/antiparticle symmetry (PDG)

Inconsistent definition of figure of merit: comparison difficultPattern of CPT violation unknown (P: weak interaction, CP: mesons) Arbitrary number joggling to get accuracy better than experiments !!!

CPT Violation & Lorentz Invariance Violation

Kostelecky et al.: Interaction with a finite strength Figure of merit energy based

Completely different systems appear much more interesting !14Verifications of CPT symmetryTests of particle/antiparticle symmetry (PDG)

Using the Kostelecky et al. Standard Model Extension scheme

Mass [eV]

Different methods available to produce Antihydrogen

Scientists Create 'Star Trek' Antihydrogen in QuantityBy Alex DominguezAssociated Pressposted: 02:59 pm ET18 September 2002

ATHENAATRAP

Physical Review Letters 89, 213401 online (2002) Laser spectroscopy 1s-2s -------- Microwave spectroscopy 1s Hyperfine StructureR= mec2 *a2/2 hDn1s2s= *R+eQED+enucl +eweak + eCPTLong distance InteractionContact interactionDnHFS= cons. *a2 R+eQED+enucl +eweak + eCPT

(Anti-)Hydrogen CPT Tests

2/df 92/df 4.2

Hydrogen Laser spectroscopyHaensch et al.

(Anti-)Hydrogen Spectroscopy*

Hydrogen 1s-2s Saturation Intensity Is = 0.9 W/cm2Excitation Rate Re = 4p*84*(I/W/s*cm2)2/Dn/HzPhoto Ionization Rate Rp = 9*I/W/s*cm2Zeeman shift dnZ = 9.3*B Hz/Tac Stark shift dnac = 1.7*I Hz /W*cm2

Velocity at 1mK V1K = 4 m/sTime-of-flight broadening DnTOF = 3 kHz (1 mK, 600 mm beam diam.)

Lyman a detection efficiency 10-6 = * effMCP (= 10-4 * 10-2)

1011 H-atoms (MIT Bose condensation) dn/n1s2s = 10-13 (1s integration time)

Just one Problem: Lyman-a detection via field quenching => atoms can be used once only (all 1s, mF states get equally populated)Line center accuracy in absence of systematic errors:

n = Dnexp. / (Sign./Noise) Dnexp. / Nparticles

* numbers verified with L. Willmann Antihydrogen experiments benefit from more particlespH Ground-state Hyperfine Structurefrom B. Juhasz

SIMULATIONNeed less particles ( 2 pH / s ) because of narrow natural linewidth

pHe+ Atom a naturally occurring trap for antiprotons

Serendipitously discovered by Tokyo group at KEK 3-body system, Metastable ~ 3% of stopped antiprotons survive with average lifetime of ~ 3 ms Precision laser spectroscopy by ASACUSA: - best test of 3-body QED theories - proton-antiproton mass & charge comparison (PDG) Enters CODATA constant adjustment significantlyHayano, Yamazaki et al.Progress in atomcule spectroscopyyear

CPT Tests @ CERN ADAt the CERN AD a number of unique, important CPT tests were already conducted and improved ones are on their way :

ASACUSA pHe , pHe+ , pH , p

ATRAP p , pH

ALPHA pH

One can expect significant steering of Model Building and High Visibility next to a robust discovery potential.

HydrogenF=m*g F=m*g ? F= - m*g ? (Anti-)Hydrogen Gravity Tests

Unique Possibility Lyman a laser required Lyman a laser developed

The Remaining eagerly awaited Gravity TestGravity Tests @ CERN ADAt the CERN AD is the place to answer the most urgent question on antimatter gravity :

AEGIS pH

ATRAP pH

Free Fall pH

One can expect an answer to a most fundamental questionto question, which only can be answered by experiment! High Visibility next to a robust discovery potential.

Standard Model PhysicsApplications Antiprotonic Radioactive AtomsProcessObservableDeduced quantityPhysicsCapture in high orbit (atomic x-sections), cascadeAntiprotonic x-rays O(MeV) Annihilation orbit, energy shiftsMatter distributions, neutron vs. protons on nuclear surface, Annihilation (n>7) on peripheral nucleonDe-excitation g, particles, daughter activityn vs. p annihilation VOLUME 87, NUMBER 8 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 20 AUGUST 2001Neutron Density Distributions Deduced from Antiprotonic AtomsA. Trzcinska, J. Jastrze bski, and P. LubinskiHeavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University, PL-02-093 Warsaw, PolandF. J. Hartmann, R. Schmidt, and T. von EgidyPhysik-Department, Technische Universitt Mnchen, D-85747 Garching, GermanyB. KlosPhysics Department, Silesian University, PL-40-007 Katowice, Poland(Received 28 March 2001; published 2 August 2001)

Highest Uncertainty Arising from Theory

ASACUSAusing RFQD &MUSAHI28

Antiproton Radio-TherapyA significant win (factor ~4)in a sensitive window fortumor treatment and healthy tissue sparing

CarbonAntiprotons

Physics within Standard Model and Applied Research@ CERN ADAt the CERN AD also SM physics and Applied Research isconducted:

ASACUSA p-nucleus annihilation, atomic collisions

Double-Strangeness p-nucleus dedicated experiment Production

PAX p polarization, p p interactions

ACE p radiation-therapy

One can expect deeper insights and the development ofnovel techniques to the benefit of physics and society. Antiproton Sources Antiproton Decelerator (AD) @ CERNStarted operation July 6, 2000 Antiproton capture, deceleration, coolingPulsed extractionMany ExperimentsASACUSAATRAP ALPHA AEGISFree FallPAXACE ..Request for more and better antiproton beamsTo speed up progressTo boost accuracy ELENA

Consequent Future Development

ELENA@CERNELENA provides 10-100 times more particles?Possible Option? TSR@MPIK(Heidelberg) ELENA ??

FLAIRNESR

Factor 100 more pbar trapped or stopped in gas targets than nowFLAIR @ /FAIR

New Facilities @ CERN AD or GSI/FAIRNew Facilities can provide up to 100 times more particles:

MUSASHI ASACUSA s device to recycle ps ELENA Generic low cost CERN solution, Start possible now

FLAIR GSI/FAIR solution not before 2015

One can expect faster progress and better results from more ps

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