Nelson Mandela (1918-2013): A Timeline in Pictures

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  • 8/13/2019 Nelson Mandela (1918-2013): A Timeline in Pictures

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    E Vmliamni mn_mhturis

    NIAXGN LENFIAE(5=54 0?58)

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    _eki 5gj 0?

    Grmkmnea sgurhi3 dttp3//www.npr.grk/0?58/50/?9/5=:8949;:/tdi-amji-gj-niasgn-lenfiae NGVI3Vdms fghulint hgntemns hgpyrmkdtif mlekis. Eaa PmkdtsPisirvif.

    Kuys3M devi mnhaufif e nul`ir gj ivints enf mlekis ngt mn tdi grmkmnea gj tdms N_P tmliamni. Es eaweys, stufy tdmsletirmea herijuaay enf `i priperif tg `i tistif gn mt.

    Niasgn Lenfiae, 5=54-0?58E Vmliamni mn _mhturis(efeptif jrgl Xhinis jrgl tdi Amji gj Niasgn Lenfiae`y Pi`ihhe Xiaa, Fihil`ir ?9, 0?58 :355 _L)

    5=54Vdi Amji gj LenfiaeNiasgn Lenfiae wes grn mntg e hguntry tdet hgnsmfirif dml e sihgnf-haess hmtmzin. Di kriw tg ihgli gni gj tdi lgst rispihtif stetislin mn tdi wgraf

    Jgr tg `i jrii ms ngt liriay tg hest gjj gni's hdemns, `ut tg amvi mn e weytdet rispihts enf indenhis tdi jriifgl gj gtdirs.

    Cuay 54, 5=54@grn3 Pgamdaedae Lenfiae@grn mn tdi rilgti Vrensbim rikmgn gj XgutdEjrmhe, di ms nelif Pgamdaedae, e Tdgse nelilienmnk puaamnk tdi renhd gj e trii."

    5=0;Krgwmnk Yp

    _aehif unfir heri gj Vdil`u Pikint Cgnkmnte`e Feamnfyi`g, dms jetdir's hgusmn, ejtir dms jetdirs fietd, Lenfiae krgws up diermnk stgrmis e`gut tdihgureki gj dms enhistgrs. Vdi neli Niasgn ms kmvin tg dml y e shdggatiehdir.

    "Ejrmhens gj ly kiniretmgnenf ivin tgfeykinireaay devi `gtd enInkamsd enf en Ejrmhen neli. [dmtis wiri imtdir unwmaamnk gr une`ai tgprgngunhi en Ejrmhen neli, enf hgnsmfirif mt unhmvmamzif tg devi gni.Vdet fey, Lmss Lfmnkeni tgaf li tdet ly niw neli wes Niasgn."- jrgl dms ggb Agnk [eab tg Jriifgl.

    http://www.npr.org/2013/12/05/196358576/the-life-of-nelson-mandelahttp://www.npr.org/2013/12/05/196358576/the-life-of-nelson-mandelahttp://www.npr.org/2013/12/05/196358576/the-life-of-nelson-mandela
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    _eki 0gj 0?

    ]gunk Niasgn Lenfiae (pdgtg tebin mn 5=8;)

    5=6?Ixpiaaif Jrgl Ynmvirsmty Hgaaiki gj Jgrt DeriEt Ynmvirsmty gj Jgrt Deri Lenfiae `ihglis mnvgavif mn prgtists gvir tdi litdgf gj iaihtmgns jgr XtufintHgunhma Piprisintetmvi siets. Di mskmvin tdi uatmletul tg tebi dmsiaihtif siet gr `i ixpiaaif.

    5=69Netmgnea _gamtmhsLenfiae y ngw ms hglpaitiaymnvgavif mn netmgnea pgamtmhs.

    Niasgn Lenfiae et tdi ikmnnmnk gj dms pgamtmhea heriir (diri wmtd Fr. ]usuj Fefgg gj tdiVrensveea Mnfmen Hgnkriss).

    _dgtg tebin mn 5=69

    Lenfiae wmtd Fefgg et eketdirmnk mn jrgnt gj

    Cgdennis urk Hmty Deaa

    (5=69)

    5=64EpertdimfVdiEjrmbenirsNetmgnea _erty wmnstdi lemnay wdmtis-gnay peramelinteryiaihtmgns enf inehtsmts Cml Hrgw pgamhygj epertdimf," esystil gj aikeasikriketmgn.

    5=95Iaihtif_rismfint gj tdiENH]AEjtir ettinfmnk ENH liitmnks mnjgrleaay, Lenfiae jgunfs tdi Ejrmhen Netmgnea Hgnkriss ]gutd Aiekui (ENH]A) mn 5=662 di ms aetiriaihtif mts netmgnea sihritery enf tdin prismfint. Easg mn 5=95, di lerrmis Iviayn Ntgbg Lesi enf des jgur hdmafrin3 Vdil`ibmai,Lebezmwi (fmis et = lgntds), Lebketdg enf Lebezmwi.

    5=90Iaihtif ENH Fiputy _rismfint

    Mn Cuni, tdi Fijmenhi helpemkn, e ngnvmgaint less rismstenhi, ms aeunhdif y tdi ENH. Lenfiae ms aetir iaihtif fiputy prismfint enf fiviagps tdi L-_aen,wdmhd wguaf ine ai tdi ENH tg hgntmnui gpiretmnk unfirkrgunf mj nihissery.

    Lenfiae gpins tdi jmrst aehb aew jmrl mn Xgutd Ejrmhe wmtd Gamvir Vel`g, e jrminf jrgl Jgrt Deri wdg ms easg mnvgavif mn tdi ENH]A.

    "Agnk spiihdis, tdi sdebmnk gj jmsts, tdi `enkmnk gj te`ais enf strgnkaywgrfif risgautmgns gut gj tguhd wmtd tdi g cihtmvi hgnfmtmgns fg ngt rmnke`gut less ehtmgn enf hen fg e kriet fiea gj derl tg tdi grkenmzetmgn enftdi strukkai wi sirvi."~ _rismfintmea effriss tg tdi ENH Vrensveea Hgnkriss, =/05/98

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    _eki 8gj 0?

    5=90Fijmenhi HelpemknVdi ENH, tgkitdir wmtd gtdir entm-epertdimf grkenmzetmgns (ngte`ay tdi Xgutd Ejrmhen Mnfmen Hgnkriss), aeunhd tdi ngn-vmgaintHelpemkn gj Fijmenhi Ekemnst Yncust Aews.

    "Eaa pigpai, mrrispihtmvi gj tdi netmgnea krgup tdiy `iagnk tg enfmrrispihtmvi gj tdi hgagr gj tdimr sbmn, wdg devi lefi Xgutd Ejrmhe tdimrdgli, eri intmtaif tg amvi e juaa enf jrii amji.

    "Juaa filghretmh rmkdts wmtd fmriht sey mn tdi ejjemrs gj tdi kgvirnlint eritdi mneamine`ai rmkdt gj iviry Xgutd Ejrmhen - e rmkdt wdmhd lust `i rieamzifngw mj Xgutd Ejrmhe ms tg `i sevif jrgl sghmea hdegs enf tyrenny enf jrgltdi ivmas ermsmnk gut gj tdi ixmstmnk finmea gj tdi jrenhdmsi gj vest lessis gjtdi pgpuaetmgn gn tdi krgunfs gj rehi enf hgagr.

    "Vdi strukkai wdmhd tdi netmgnea grkenmzetmgns gj tdi ngn-Iurgpienpigpai eri hgnfuhtmnk ms ngt fmrihtif ekemnst eny rehi gr netmgnea krgup. Mtms ekemnst tdi uncust aews wdmhd biip mn pirpituea su`cihtmgn enf lmsiryvest sihtmgns gj tdi pgpuaetmgn. Mt ms jgr tdi hrietmgn gj hgnfmtmgns wdmhdwmaa ristgri dulen fmknmty, iqueamty enf jriifgl tg iviry Xgutd Ejrmhen."~_ert gj tdi stetilint mssuif furmnk tdi paennmnk stekis gj tdi helpemkn.

    Aiefirs gj tdi Fijmenhi Helpemkn2 tdiy wguaf ivintueaay rihimvi suspinfif cemasintinhis jgr tdimr entm-epertdimf ehtmvmtmis.

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    _eki 6gj 0?

    5=99_rgluaketmgn gj tdi Jriifgl HdertirE aggsi hgeamtmgn gj vermgus entm-epertdimf grkenmzetmgns (i.k. Ejrmhen Netmgnea Hgnkriss, tdi Xgutd Ejrmhen Mnfmen Hgnkriss, tdi XgutdEjrmhen Hgagrif _igpais Hgnkriss, tdi Xgutd Ejrmhen Hgnkriss gjFilghrets enf tdi Xgutd Ejrmhen Hgnkriss gj Vrefi Ynmgns (XEHVY)),bngwn es tdi Hgnkriss Eaamenhi, et e pu`amh ketdirmnk fu``if tdi Hgnkrissgj tdi _igpai mssui tdi Jriifgl Hdertirheaamnk jgr e luatm-rehmea filghrehymn Xgutd Ejrmhe.

    Vdi Jriifgl HdertirEfgptif et tdi Hgnkriss gj tdi _igpai, Bamptgwn, gn 0: Cuni 5=99

    [i, tdi _igpai gj Xgutd Ejrmhe, fihaeri jgr eaa gur hguntry enftdi wgraf tg bngw3

    tdet Xgutd Ejrmhe `iagnks tg eaa wdg amvi mn mt, aehb enfwdmti, enf tdet ng kgvirnlint hen custay haeml eutdgrmtyunaiss mt ms `esif gn tdi wmaa gj eaa tdi pigpai2

    tdet gur pigpai devi `iin rg``if gj tdimr mrtdrmkdt tg aenf,am irty enf piehi `y e jgrl gj kgvirnlint jgunfif gnmncustmhi enf mniqueamty2

    tdet gur hguntry wmaa nivir `i prgspirgus gr jrii untma eaa gur pigpai amvi mn `rgtdirdggf, incgymnk iquea rmkdts enfgppgrtunmtmis2

    tdet gnay e filghretmh steti, `esif gn tdi wmaa gj eaa tdi pigpai, hen sihuri tg eaa tdimr mrtdrmkdt wmtdgut fmstmnhtmgn gjhgagur, rehi, six gr `iamij2

    Enf tdirijgri, wi, tdi pigpai gj Xgutd Ejrmhe, aehb enf wdmti tgkitdir iqueas,hguntrylin enf `rgtdirs efgpt tdms Jriifgl Hdertir2

    Enf wi paifki gursiavis tg strmvi tgkitdir, spermnk nimtdir strinktd ngr hgureki, untmatdi filghretmh hdenkis diri sit gut devi `iin wgn.

    Vdi _igpai Xdeaa Kgvirn! ....

    Eaa Netmgnea Krgups Xdeaa devi Iquea Pmkdts! ....

    Vdi _igpai Xdeaa Xderi mn tdi Hguntry's [ieatd! .

    Vdi Aenf Xdeaa i Xderif Elgnk Vdgsi [dg [grb Mt! .

    Eaa Xdeaa i Iquea @ijgri tdi Aew! .

    Eaa Xdeaa Incgy Iquea Dulen Pmkdts! .

    Vdiri Xdeaa i [grb enf Xihurmty! .

    Vdi Fggrs gj Aiernmnk enf Huaturi Xdeaa iGpinif! .

    Vdiri Xdeaa i Dgusis, Xihurmty enf

    Hgljgrt! .

    Vdiri Xdeaa i _iehi enf Jrminfsdmp! .

    VDIXI JPIIFGLX [I [MAA JMKDV JGPXMFI @] XMFI, VDPGYKDGYV GYPAMZIX, YNVMA [I DEZI [GN GYPAM@IPV]

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    _eki 9gj 0?

    5=9:Erristif jgr VriesgnLenfiae ms erristif wmtd lgri tden 59? gtdirs jgr pagttmnk tg usi vmgainhi tg gvirtdrgw tdi Xgutd Ejrmhen kgvirnlint. Di enf 04 gtdirs eri jmneaayehqumttif mn 5=:5.

    ENH suppgrtirs prey mn jrgnt gj tdi hgurtdgusi gj Cgdennis urk tg suppgrtentm-epertdimf lmamtents, mnhaufmnk Niasgn Lenfiae, furmnk tdimr trmea.

    Gnaggbirs hdiir es tdi prmsgnirs eri rgukdt tg tdi hgurt mn e pgamhi ven, wmtd gnilen ivin haml mnk gafay gn tg tdi us tg sdgut wgrfs gj

    inhgurekilint tg tdi prmsgnirs.

    5=94

    Lerrmis Nglzelg [mnnmiLefmbmziaeEjtir fmvgrhmnk Iviayn, dms jmrstwmji, Niasgn enf [mnnmi Lenfiae eri lerrmif enf aetir devi twg feukdtirs, Sinenm enf Smnfzm.

    Lerhd 05, 5=:?Xderpivmaai LessehriEt e prgtist grkenmzif y tdi rmvea _en-EjrmhenmstHgnkriss, smxty-nmni unerlif pigpai eri bmaaif enflgri tden 54? mncurif y pgamhi wdmai prgtistmnk pessaews. Vdisi aews riqumri aehbs enf "hgagrifs" tg herrypess`ggbs wmtd tdil, lient tg amlmt tdi lgvilints gjtdi ngnwdmti pgpuaetmgn mn Xgutd Ejrmhe. Enygni(wdmti) hen riquist tg sii e pess`ggb.

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    _eki :gj 0?

    Lerhd 8?, 5=:?Xteti gj Ilirkinhy

    Vdi epertdimf kgvirnlint fihaeris e steti gj ilirkinhy, wdmhd ivintueaay aiefs tg tdi ennmnk gj tdi ENH enf tdi _en Ejrmhenmst Hgnkriss, gr _EH.

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    _eki ;gj 0?

    5=:5Ylbdgntg [i Xmzwims JgrlifYlbdgntg wi Xmzwi, gr LB ("Xpier gj tdi Netmgn"), e kuirrmaae erly wmnk gj tdi ENH, ms jgrlif.

    5=:8Lenfiae Hderkif wmtd Xe`gtekiLenfiae enf 5? gtdirs eri hderkif wmtd se`gteki jgr tdi kuirrmaae tehtmhs usif y Ylbdgntg wi Xmzwi, jgaagwmnk tdimr errist mn Pmvgnme, e su`ur` gjCgdennis urk. Vdiy hen pgtintmeaay i sintinhif tg fietd.

    Eprma 0?, 5=:6Vdi Pmvgnme VrmeaFurmnk tdi trmea, rijirrif tg y dmstgrmens es tdi Pmvgnme Vrmea, Lenfiaefiamvirs e jgur-dgur stetilint enf ilirkis es e aiefir ekemnst epertdimf.

    Hrgwf gutsmfi tdi hgurt (bngwn, lgst mrgnmheaay, es tdi _eaehi gj Custmhi) es tdi trmea hgllinhis

    Pmvgnme Vrmea3 Vdi Ehhusif

    Niasgn Lenfiae (5=54-0?58)

    [eatir Xmsuau (5=50-0??8)

    Kgven L`ibm (5=5?-0??5)

    Edlif Betdrefe (5=0=- )

    Finnms Kgaf`irk (5=88- )

    Enfriw Laenkinm (5=0: - )

    Celis Bentgr (5=0;- )

    Amgnia (Pusty) @irnstimn (5=0?-0??0)

    Iames Lgsgeaifm (5=06-5==6)

    Peylgnf Ldae`e (5=0?-0??9) @g` Dippai (5=86- )

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    _eki 4gj 0?

    Eprma 0?, 5=:6Niasgn Lenfiae's stetilint et tdi Pmvgnme Vrmea

    Mt ms ngt trui tdet tdi injrenhdmsilint gj eaa wmaa risuat mn rehmeafglmnetmgn. _gamtmhea fmvmsmgn, `esif gn hgagr, ms intmriay ertmjmhmea enf,wdin mt fmseppiers, sg wmaa tdi fglmnetmgn gj gni hgagr krgup y engtdir.Vdi ENH des spint deaj e hintury jmkdtmnk ekemnst rehmeamsl. [din mttrmulpds mt wmaa ngt hdenki tdet pgamhy.Furmnk ly amjitmli M devififmhetif lysiaj tg tdms strukkai gj tdi Ejrmhen pigpai. M devi jgukdtekemnst wdmti fglmnetmgn, enf M devi jgukdt ekemnst `aehb fglmnetmgn. Mdevi hdirmsdif tdi mfiea gj e filghretmh enf jrii sghmity mn wdmhd eaapirsgns amvi tgkitdir mn derlgny enf wmtd iquea gppgrtunmtmis. Mt ms enmfiea wdmhd M dgpi tg amvi jgr enf tg ehdmivi. @ut mj niifs `i, mt ms en mfieajgr wdmhd M el priperif tg fmi. ~[mtd tdi viry riea pgssm mamty gj tdi fietd sintinhi jehmnk tdil, Niasgn Lenfiae, ettdi hgnhausmgn gj dms stetilint et tdi gpinmnk gj tdi fijinsi hesi, hgurekigusay hdeaainkis tdi Hgurt (enf mn tdi prghiss trensjgrls tdi trmea jrgl ehrmlmnea tg e pgamtmhea gni).

    Cuni 50, 5=:6XintinhmnkImkdt gj tdi 55 ehhusif, mnhaufmnk Lenfiae, eri sintinhif tg amji mlprmsgnlint jgr se`gteki. Vdiy eri sint tg Pg``in Msaenf.

    Vdi imkdt lin sintinhif aievi tdi _eaehi gj Custmhi mn _ritgrme gn Cuni 5:, 5=:6, wmtdtdimr jmsts remsif mn fijmenhi tdrgukd tdi errif wmnfgws gj tdi prmsgn her.

    Pg``in Msaenf, wmtd tdi Ve ai @ey Lguntemnmn tdi ehbkrgunf

    Filgnstretmnk dms gunfaiss leknenmlmty, _rismfint Niasgn Lenfiaewmtd tdi Pmvgnme Vrmea prgsihutgr, _irhy ]uter, et e aunhdign mn 5==9.

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    _eki =gj 0?

    5=;9Amji mn _rmsgn

    "Fmjjmhuatmis `rieb sgli lin `ut lebigtdirs. Ng exi ms sderp ingukd tg hut tdisgua gj e smnnir wdg biips gn trymnk, gnierlif wmtd tdi dgpi tdet di wmaa rmsi ivin mntdi inf." ~ Lenfiae mn e aittir tg [mnnmi, dms wmji

    5=;:Xgwitg YprmsmnkGn tdi lgrnmnk gj Cuni 5:, e ngn-vmgaint filgnstretmgn y Xgwitg shdgga stufints, hualmnetis, es mn tdi 5=:? Xderpivmaai Lessehri, mn e vmgaint rispgnsi`y tdi pgamhi, aiefmnk tg e nul`ir gj fietds elgnk tdi filgnstretgrs. Vdms uprmsmnk lerbif e niw hdeptir mn tdi entm-epertdimf strukkai mn wdmhd tdi rgaigj tdi ygunk wguaf aggl aerki. [mtdmn e`gut twg fihefis epertdimf, e rehmst systil wmtd rggts kgmnk ehb sgli tdrii hinturmis, wguaf i ng lgri.

    Dihtgr _mitirsgn, gni gj tdi stufints bmaaif,es tdi pgamhi jmrif mntg tdi filgnstretgrs.

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    _eki 5?gj 0?

    5=40Lgvif jrgl Pg``in MsaenfLenfiae enf sgli gj tdi gtdir mlprmsgnif ENH aiefirs eri trensjirrif jrgl Pg``in Msaenf tg _gaaslggr _rmsgn.

    5=49Picihts HgnfmtmgneaPiaiesi

    Lenfiae turns fgwn en gjjir gj hgnfmtmgnea riaiesi y Xgutd Ejrmhen _rismfint _.[. @gtde

    "Vdi riaiesi wguaf devi lient di def tg fingunhi tdiENH, tdi LB, enf eaa typis gj pgamtmhea ehtmvmty. Di wguafdevi tg kg amvi mn e dgliaenf. Dms lisseki wes, 'Yntma lypigpai eri jrii, M hen nivir i jrii.' "~ Smnfzm Lenfiae, feukdir gj Niasgn enf

    [mnnmi, riefmnk Lenfiaes rispgnsi et e pehbif stefmul mn Xgwitg tg en gjjir gj hgnfmtmgnea riaiesi.

    Cuni 55, 5=44;?td @mrtdfey Vrm utiE lgri tden 55 dgur hgnhirt rgefhest tg lmaamgns mn sgli 5?? hguntrmis ms diafmn [il aiy Xtefmul mn dgngr gj Lenfiaes ;?td mrtdfey.

    Lerb Bngpjair (Fmri Xtremts)3 Gni [graf, Gni Custmhi.

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    _eki 55gj 0?

    Fihil`ir ;, 5=44Lgvif tg Zmhtgr Zirstir _rmsgnLenfiae ms lgvif tg e agw sihurmty prmsgn hgtteki, wdiri di ms diaf jgr 56 lgntds.

    Ji`ruery 0, 5==?ENH Ms Yn`ennifEjtir vmgainhi hgntmnuis mn Xgutd Ejrmhe, _rismfint @gtde rismkns. Niw _rismfint J.[. fi Bairbgjjirs Lenfiae unhgnfmtmgnea riaiesi.

    Ji`ruery 55, 5==?Niasgn Lenfiae ms Jriif

    "Jgr tg `i jrii ms ngt liriay tghest gjj gni's hdemns, `ut tg amvi mne wey tdet rispihts enf indenhistdi jriifgl gj gtdirs."

    Niasgn Lenfiae enf wmji [mnnmi weab denf-mn-denf wmtd remsif hainhdif jmsts upgnLenfiae's riaiesi.

    Eprma, 5==?Vrm uti tg Niasgn Lenfiae

    En mntirnetmgnea lusmhea trm uti tg Lenfiae hiai retmnk dmriaiesi jrgl mlprmsgnlint, [il aiy Xtefmul, Y.B

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    _eki 50gj 0?

    5==?Zmsmts tdi Ynmtif Xtetis

    Effrissmnk tdi cgmnt sissmgn gj tdi Y.X. Hgnkriss mn Cuni 5==? (up tg tdet pgmnt gnaytdi tdmrf prmveti hmtmzin ivir sg dgngrif mn Y.X. dmstgry y Hgnkriss).

    [mtd Niw ]grb Hmty Leygr, Fevmf Fmnbmns2 Cuni 5==

    5==?Zmsmts Ikypt

    Lenfiae wmtd _eaistmnmen Am iretmgn Grkenmzetmgn Hdemrlen]essir Erejet mn 5==? mn Hemrg.

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    _eki 58gj 0?

    5==5Zmsmts Hu`e

    [mtd Jmfia Hestrg furmnk e vmsmt tg Hu e mn 5==5

    5==0Mnvmtif tg tdi [graf Ihgnglmh JgrulLenfiae ettinfs tdi [graf Ihgnglmh Jgrul, e liitmnk prmlermay gj tdi wgrafs tgp hgrpgreti hepmteamsts, mn Fevgs, Xwmtziraenf, wdiri dms cgurniy tgwerfe juaa il`rehi gj hgrpgreti hepmteamsl ikmns (gstinsm ay wmtd inhgurekilint jrgl tdi Hdmnisi enf Zmitnelisi fiaiketmgns).

    Lenfiae liits Fi Bairb gutsmfi Xgutd Ejrmhe jgr tdi jmrst tmli.

    5==8Lenfiae enf Fi Bairb Pihimvi Ng`ia

    _rmzi jgr _iehiLenfiae enf fi Bairb wgrb tgkitdir tg nikgtmetien inf tg tdi epertdimf rikmli.

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    _eki 56gj 0?

    Eprma 0;, 5==6Xgutd Ejrmhe Dgafs...

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