Nco Role In Battlefield Management

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Network Centric Warfare - is a revolution in search of doctrine. This was a presentation made for CAIR, DRDO, India on August 11, 2010,

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<ul><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>Navneet Bhushan</p><p>(navneet.bhushan@crafitti.com)</p><p>Crafitti Consulting (www.crafitti.com)</p><p>CAIR, DRDO, August 10, 2010</p><p>A visualization of the network structure of the Internet at the level of autonomous systemslocal groups</p><p>of computers each representing hundreds or thousands of machines. Picture by Hal Burch and Bill Cheswick, courtesy of Lumeta</p><p>Corporation. INTERNET</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>August 16, 2010 2 Crafitti Consulting Private Ltd.</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>August 16, 2010 3 Crafitti Consulting Private Ltd.</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>August 16, 2010 4 Crafitti Consulting Private Ltd.</p><p>The Singaporean designer Fung Kwok Pan has managed to capture </p><p>the flow of water in solid form, and the results are stunning. </p><p>http://www.fastcodesign.com/1662020/eye-candy-solid-</p><p>vase-is-a-3-d-pic-of-splashing-milk</p>http://www.fastcodesign.com/1662020/eye-candy-solid-vase-is-a-3-d-pic-of-splashing-milkhttp://www.fastcodesign.com/1662020/eye-candy-solid-vase-is-a-3-d-pic-of-splashing-milkhttp://www.fastcodesign.com/1662020/eye-candy-solid-vase-is-a-3-d-pic-of-splashing-milkhttp://www.fastcodesign.com/1662020/eye-candy-solid-vase-is-a-3-d-pic-of-splashing-milkhttp://www.fastcodesign.com/1662020/eye-candy-solid-vase-is-a-3-d-pic-of-splashing-milkhttp://www.fastcodesign.com/1662020/eye-candy-solid-vase-is-a-3-d-pic-of-splashing-milkhttp://www.fastcodesign.com/1662020/eye-candy-solid-vase-is-a-3-d-pic-of-splashing-milkhttp://www.fastcodesign.com/1662020/eye-candy-solid-vase-is-a-3-d-pic-of-splashing-milkhttp://www.fastcodesign.com/1662020/eye-candy-solid-vase-is-a-3-d-pic-of-splashing-milkhttp://www.fastcodesign.com/1662020/eye-candy-solid-vase-is-a-3-d-pic-of-splashing-milkhttp://www.fastcodesign.com/1662020/eye-candy-solid-vase-is-a-3-d-pic-of-splashing-milkhttp://www.fastcodesign.com/1662020/eye-candy-solid-vase-is-a-3-d-pic-of-splashing-milkhttp://www.fastcodesign.com/1662020/eye-candy-solid-vase-is-a-3-d-pic-of-splashing-milkhttp://www.fastcodesign.com/1662020/eye-candy-solid-vase-is-a-3-d-pic-of-splashing-milkhttp://www.fastcodesign.com/1662020/eye-candy-solid-vase-is-a-3-d-pic-of-splashing-milkhttp://www.fastcodesign.com/1662020/eye-candy-solid-vase-is-a-3-d-pic-of-splashing-milkhttp://www.fastcodesign.com/1662020/eye-candy-solid-vase-is-a-3-d-pic-of-splashing-milkhttp://www.fastcodesign.com/1662020/eye-candy-solid-vase-is-a-3-d-pic-of-splashing-milkhttp://www.fastcodesign.com/1662020/eye-candy-solid-vase-is-a-3-d-pic-of-splashing-milkhttp://www.fastcodesign.com/1662020/eye-candy-solid-vase-is-a-3-d-pic-of-splashing-milkhttp://www.fastcodesign.com/1662020/eye-candy-solid-vase-is-a-3-d-pic-of-splashing-milkhttp://www.fastcodesign.com/1662020/eye-candy-solid-vase-is-a-3-d-pic-of-splashing-milkhttp://www.fastcodesign.com/1662020/eye-candy-solid-vase-is-a-3-d-pic-of-splashing-milk</li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>August 16, 2010 5 Crafitti Consulting Private Ltd.</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>Globe has been Re-engineered! </p><p>Flattening World</p><p> And we dont even realize it </p><p>While the defining measurement of (old world) </p><p>was weight the defining measurement of </p><p>the globalization system is speed speed of commerce, travel, communication and </p><p>innovation</p><p>Thomas L. Friedman, The Lexus and Olive Tree</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>Power SystemViolence</p><p>Wealth</p><p>Knowledge</p><p>Knowledge based Violence &amp; </p><p>Wealth</p><p>Violence &amp; Wealth based </p><p>knowledge</p><p>Structure of </p><p>Future </p><p>World</p><p>Technological SystemsInformation Technology</p><p>Industrial Automation</p><p>Genomics</p><p>Bio-Technology</p><p>Smart Materials</p><p>Nanotechnology</p><p>Propulsion Technology</p><p>Geo Political SystemBipolarity/ Multi-polarity</p><p>Multinational Companies </p><p>controlling the world</p><p>Reducing Value of Nation State</p><p>Social SystemRise of the Individual/Ethnic/Religious </p><p>groupings</p><p>Nuclear/Single parent family system</p><p>Rise of dissatisfaction</p><p>Economic SystemSmall more Networked </p><p>Organizations</p><p>Rapid Changes in the way wealth </p><p>is generated</p><p>Low tariff barriers </p><p>Common Currencies and </p><p>compatible economic systems</p><p>Low entry barriers</p><p>Organization FormsHierarchies shifting to </p><p>Networked form of </p><p>Organization</p><p>Hierarchical Networks</p><p>Networked Hierarchies</p><p>SOURCE: Bhushan N. and Rai K., Strategic Decision Making, Springer Verlag, Jan 2004</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>The Globalized World</p><p> Global Real-time Awareness</p><p> Large monolithic structures to small, distributed well-connected organizations Collabtetion Collaboration+Competition</p><p> Hierarchies Hierarchical Networks Networked Hierarchies Networks</p><p> Power shifts to Knowledge Based Real-time Actors</p><p> Time, Trade, Space, Geography, Cultural, Language, Social Shackles Demolished</p><p> Survival of the Agile Decision Making and Action at Electronic Speed</p><p> Everyone has the wherewithal to continuously Re-invent oneself</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>August 16, 2010 9 Crafitti Consulting Private Ltd.</p><p>As economic fortunes rise, so does nationalism</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>August 16, 2010 10 Crafitti Consulting Private Ltd.</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>August 16, 2010 11 Crafitti Consulting Private Ltd.</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>Complexity in a FlatteningWorld</p><p>Number of alternatives</p><p>Time pressure</p><p>Need for analysis</p><p>Information de-coherence</p><p>Connections</p><p>Networks</p><p>Human Processing Limits </p><p>(The Magic Number 7 2)</p><p>Framing Limits</p><p>Confidence</p><p>Rapid Explosion </p><p>of Complexity</p><p> Connections create Value and Dependencies </p><p>create complexity</p><p> Future is approaching us Faster than History is </p><p>leaving us!</p><p> Increasing distance between user requirements </p><p>of what they really need versus what they want.</p><p> With every choice we make today we Kill </p><p>many possible futures</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>Decision Making in a Flattening World</p><p>Number of alternatives</p><p>Time pressure</p><p>Need for analysis</p><p>Information de-coherence</p><p>Connections</p><p>Networks</p><p>Human Processing Limits </p><p>(The Magic Number 7 2)</p><p>Framing Limits</p><p>Confidence</p><p>Rapid Explosion </p><p>of Complexity</p><p> Each Decision (a Choice) affects future </p><p>Choices (decisions)</p><p> Each Decision is impacted by past Decisions </p><p>(Choices) made by someone somewhere</p><p> With every choice we make today we Kill </p><p>many possible futures</p><p> With every choice we make today we Select </p><p>only a small subset of possible futures</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: </p><p>Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information</p><p>George A. Miller (1956)</p><p>Harvard University</p><p>First published in Psychological Review, 63, 81-97. </p><p>[1] This paper was first read as an Invited Address before the Eastern Psychological Association in Philadelphia on April 15, 1955. </p><p>The point seems to be that, as we add </p><p>more variables to the display, we </p><p>increase the total capacity, but we </p><p>decrease the accuracy for any </p><p>particular variable. In other words, </p><p>we can make relatively crude </p><p>judgments of several things </p><p>simultaneously. </p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>The first decade of 20th Century</p><p> In 1890, Average company in US had - FOUR employees (4)</p><p> By 1901, US Steel became worlds first 1 Billion $ company</p><p> Ford Motor Company, founded in 1903, was producing half a million cars a by 1913</p><p>August 16, 2010 15 Crafitti Consulting Private Ltd.</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>The first decade of 21st Century</p><p>August 16, 2010 16 Crafitti Consulting Private Ltd.</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>More is Different Scale is the New Frontier</p><p>August 16, 2010 17 Crafitti Consulting Private Ltd.</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>SEI ULS Study 2006!</p><p>August 16, 2010 18 Crafitti Consulting Private Ltd.</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>Why we dont know how to Design ULSS?</p><p>August 16, 2010 19 Crafitti Consulting Private Ltd.</p><p>System Design - Present ApproachesAll conflicts must be resolved centrally and uniformly</p><p>Requirements can be known in advance and change slowly.</p><p>Tradeoff decisions will be stable.</p><p>Discrete Time System improvements</p><p>Effect of a change can be predicted sufficiently well.</p><p>Configuration information</p><p>Components and users are fairly homogeneous.</p><p>People are just users of the system.</p><p>Collective behavior of people is not of interest.</p><p>Social interactions are not relevant.</p><p>Failures will occur infrequently. Defects can be removed.</p><p>A prime contractor is responsible for system development,</p><p>operation, and evolution.</p><p>ULS CharacteristicsDecentralized Control</p><p>Inherently conflicting, unknowable,</p><p>and diverse requirements</p><p>Continuous evolution and</p><p>deployment</p><p>Heterogeneous, inconsistent, and</p><p>changing elements</p><p>Erosion of the people/system</p><p>boundary</p><p>Normal Failures</p><p>New paradigms for acquisition and</p><p>policy</p><p>?</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>20 Crafitti Consulting Private Ltd.</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>August 16, 2010 21 Crafitti Consulting Private Ltd.</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>ULSS Research Areas</p><p>August 16, 2010 22 Crafitti Consulting Private Ltd.</p><p>ULS Systems </p><p>Research Area</p><p>Specific Sub-Areas</p><p>Human Interaction</p><p> Context-Aware Assistive computing</p><p> Understanding Users and Their Contexts</p><p> Modeling Users and User Communities</p><p> Fostering Non-Competitive Social</p><p>Collaboration</p><p> Longevity</p><p>Computational </p><p>Emergence</p><p> Algorithmic Mechanism Design</p><p> Metaheuristics in Software Engineering</p><p> Digital Evolution</p><p>Design</p><p> Design of All Levels</p><p> Design Spaces and Design rules</p><p> Harnessing Economics to Promote Good</p><p>Design</p><p> Design Representation and Analysis</p><p> Assimilation</p><p> Determining and Managing</p><p>Requirements</p><p>Computational </p><p>Engineering</p><p> Expressive Representation Languages</p><p> Scaled-Up Specification, Verification, and</p><p>Certification</p><p> Computational Engineering for Analysis</p><p>and Design</p><p>Adaptive </p><p>System </p><p>Infrastructure</p><p> Decentralized Production Management</p><p> View-Based Evolution</p><p> Evolutionary Configuration and</p><p>Deployment</p><p> In Situ Control and Adaptation</p><p>Adaptable and </p><p>Predictable </p><p>System Quality</p><p> Robustness, Adaptation, and Quality</p><p>Attributes</p><p> Scale and Composition of Quality</p><p>Attributes</p><p> Understanding People-Centric Quality</p><p>Attributes</p><p> Enforcing Quality Requirements</p><p> Security, Trust, and Resiliency</p><p> Engineering Management at Ultra-</p><p>Large Scales</p><p>Policy, </p><p>Acquisition, </p><p>and</p><p>Management</p><p> Policy Definition for ULS Systems</p><p> Fast Acquisition for ULS Systems</p><p> Management of ULS Systems</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>Competitive Advantage- Over Ages</p><p>Time</p><p>Ex</p><p>tent of </p><p>Connec</p><p>tednes</p><p>s</p><p>How much of </p><p>Agricultural land </p><p>and Natural </p><p>Resources </p><p>How much can </p><p>be produced</p><p>How much and </p><p>Quickly can be </p><p>Informed</p><p>How much </p><p>Actionable </p><p>Knowledge </p><p>How Fast </p><p>Innovate </p><p>How Fast </p><p>Co-Create </p><p>In the Connected Age </p><p>Co-Creators will thrive</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e rNature is </p><p>Fractal!</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>Black Swan The impact of the highly improbable</p><p> I cannot accept a pretense of science. I much prefer a sophisticated craft, focused on tricks, to a failed science looking for certainties Nassim Nicholas Taleb</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p> CRAFITTI CONSULTING</p><p>A Weakening of Hierarchies</p><p> Information abundance permits INDIVIDUALS to by-pass hierarchies that have deliberately or inadvertently controlled or limited information</p><p> Alternative human organization forms based mainly on the Network have proved more effective and efficient for transacting information than hierarchies. </p><p> In Information intensive enterprises, hierarchical organizations may not be competitive with networks. </p><p>IN ATHENAs CAMP Preparing for conflict in the Information Age, (Ed) </p><p>Arquilla J. and Ronfeldt D, RAND, 1997</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p> CRAFI</p><p>ONLY Networks</p><p>CAN FIGHT Networks</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>Combat</p><p>Fight/Duel/Conflict/Battle/War/World </p><p>War/Armageddon</p><p>Modelling</p><p>Representing a system and its internal and/or external </p><p>dynamics in such a form (may be mathematical) that </p><p>information about its behaviour can be extracted or </p><p>studied</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>Parameters and Processes of Combat</p><p> Two Sides</p><p> Search</p><p> Detection</p><p> Identification</p><p> Acquisition</p><p> Tracking</p><p> Weapon Target Assignment</p><p> Weapon Aiming and Firing</p><p> Attrition</p><p> Command and </p><p>Control</p><p> Damage </p><p>Assessment</p><p> Strategic and </p><p>Tactical </p><p>Movement</p><p> Influence of </p><p>Technology</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>Nature of Combat and Combat Models</p><p>Past : Numerical Strength is Combat Power/ Attrition </p><p>Based</p><p>Modelling: Lanchester Equations Based and Fire Power </p><p>Scores in QJMA</p><p>Present: Technology Based Platform-Centric Revolution </p><p>in Military Affairs</p><p>Modelling: Weapon Power Scores in Extended Adaptive </p><p>Dynamic Model</p><p>Future: Network Centric Warfare</p><p>Modelling: Exploring New Models</p></li><li><p>Confidential</p><p>cr</p><p>af</p><p>tin</p><p>g i</p><p>nn</p><p>ov</p><p>at</p><p>ion</p><p> to</p><p>ge</p><p>th</p><p>er</p><p>c r a f t i n g i n n o v a t i o n t o g e t h e r</p><p>Approaches to Combat Modelling</p><p>Analytical Methods</p><p> Lanchester Equations</p><p> Adaptive Dynamic </p><p>Model</p><p>Firepower Scores</p><p> QJMA</p><p> WEI</p><p> Weapon Power Scores</p><p>Simulation</p><p> Combat </p><p>Simulations</p><p> Wargames</p><p>New Approaches</p><p> Cellular Automata</p><p> Petri Nets</p><p> Artificial Life</p><p> Particle Swar