NAWI 2014: Open Badges for Workforce Development: Findings from the DPD Project

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Digital Badges in the WorkforceNAWI Annual Conference22 May 2014Design Principles Documentation ProjectDigital Badges in the Workforce

Nate OttoProject CoordinatorDesign Principles Documentation ProjectIndiana UniversityThanks to:

Quick poll: How familiar are you with digital badges?I am hearing about them for the first timeI know about badges and want to learn more.I have earned some digital badges.I have built a badge system and issued badges.

Web Navigator Badge

- HackasaurusThis is a digital badge.5Digital Badges are web-enabled credentials of learning or accomplishment."Prof. Dan Hickey, Design Principles Documentation ProjectPresentation OutlineThe Design Principles Documentation ProjectWhat are digital badges?How can badges be used to support the workforce?Case studies: YALSA, the Manufacturing InstituteDesign Principles Documentation Project

Design Principles Documentation ProjectRebecca ItowAndiRehakKaterina SchenkeCathyTranNateOttoChristine Chow

Daniel Hickey

Principal Investigator

Design Principles Documentation ProjectGoal: To find out how organizations are using digital badges in learning programs.Design Principles Documentation ProjectFour functions of digital badge systemsRecognizing LearningAssessing LearningMotivating LearningStudying LearningWe decided to study these four functions of digital badge systems.

We pulled these practices apart.13

Pulling apart different functions of badge systems.The system designers didnt intend to specifically design for these four functions of badges.14Intended PracticeEnacted PracticeFormal PracticeEvolution of a PracticeOriginal designAs first implementedContinuing practiceWhat are Open Badges?

A badge is an imagewith stuff in it.Sheryl Grant, HASTACThis is hard to explain sometimes17Badges are symbolic representations of skills and accomplishments.How does this

Web Navigator Badge

- HackasaurusMean this?Nate Otto can operate a Web browser with celerity.

Metadata!

CC-BY-SA Kyle BowenOpen Badges can contain:Specific claims about learning or accomplishment

Links to supporting evidence

Use this diagram to explain how the the badge (which means ___ can operate a web browser with celerity) moves through the ecosystem.27A digital badge is an online representation of a skill youve earned [that] allows you to verify your skills, interests and achievements through credible organizations.Mozilla Foundation - About Open Badges28

How are we all doing so far?elwino (cc-by-nc-sa)Once youve earned badges, where do they go?The Open Badges Backpack

Mozillas Backpack application allows you to collect badges from wherever youve earned them, all in one place.

31Collect, Organize and Share

Heres a shot of a basic backpack collection showing a badge someone earned when they were studying aquaponics.32Collect, Organize and Share

Collect, Organize and Share

Digging deep into the claim and evidence. It describes the learning outcomes intended for this badge and has links to detailed criteria and evidence.34Collect, Organize and ShareApplying for jobsProfessional developmentPerformance reviews. . . Building Badge SystemsHow to use badges:So thats the earner perspective. Our research dug into how the issuers design badge systems. That means were studying the decisions the issuers made around:

what claims they wanted to make with badges, how they could back up those claims with valid assessments, and how they intended learners to progress.36Design Principles Documentation ProjectFour functions of digital badge systemsRecognizing LearningAssessing LearningMotivating LearningStudying LearningThough the system designers didnt necessarily start with these four functions, we found it useful to pull them apart to analyze separately.

Recognizing refers to the decisions issuers make about what badges they define: the claims those badges make about the earners at various points in their progress, as well as how they intend for learners to progress from badge to badge and how they unlock the value of the badges.

Each claim made by a badge needs associated assessment practices for two reasons: To make the critical decision whether or not to issue the badge, and to collect the right evidence that will serve to back up that claim.

The decisions in each of these first two areas will affect how students are motivated to participate, in rich and complicated ways. Its not simply a question of, do badges motivate learners? There are many questions about the effects on motivation that arise from how students are intended to participate in learning activities

There are many reasons and ways to implement research practices, though few of the projects we studied designed any formal practices in this area from the beginning. Many came across information needs later, often when seeking continuing funding and needing to quantify or justify what they had done so far. We defined three purposes for badge research and two main methods. 37For each of these categories, we identified general design principles.

This is how the general principles work. Some of them, weve broken down39

Level badgesProvide routes or pathways1 General Principle2 Specific Principles18 practicesacross 30 projects

(As implemented in project contexts)

Levels of Participation and Achievement -Intel

Hierarchical Quest Paths NOAA Planet Stewards

Sort Identified PracticesDraft Initial PrinciplesFormalize General PrinciplesBookmark Research

Emergence of Badge Design PrinciplesThis was the process we used to identify principles. Note that we started with the practices41General and Specific Principles: Recognizing LearningAlign badges to standards (23)Use standards internal to community (3)Use national or international standards (12)Use community and national/international standards (8)Use badges to map learning trajectory (18)Level badges (11)Provide routes or pathways (7)Have experts issue badges (15)Credentialed via external accredited entity (8)Credentialed via community (2)Credentialed via accredited entity and community (5)

Seek external backing (15)Externally endorsed (8)Externally valued (7) Recognize diverse learning (10)Use badges as a means of external communication of learning (11)Determine lifespan of badges (7)Never expires (7)Requires renewal or upgrading (0)Recognize educator learning (7)Award formal academic credit for badges (3)Promote discovery (7)Discover learning opportunities (5*)Discover learners (2*)

Tracking principles across 3 phases

Intended Enacted Formal

Badges in the WorkforceStackable skill credentials:

Lets get backpacks!

How are badges being used in workforce-related projects?

YALSABadges to recognize librarians skills

YALSA, a division of the ALA focusing on young adult services492012-present

YALSA won a grant to develop a badge system through the Digital Media & Learning Competition Launched spring 2014

Case Study now availablehttp://dpdproject.info/details/yalsa/ YALSA issues badges to recognize professional competencies

Communication, Outreach and Marketing badgeThe goal of YALSAs badge system is to issue badges to librarians and library workers to recognize developing competencies that theyll use in serving young adults.52The badge system will enable librarians and library workers to gain recognition for the new competencies, capacities and skills they are developing in a nontraditional settingYALSA grant proposal to the DML Competition{read quote} Ok, so YALSAs badges recognize what librarians and library workers learn on the job about serving youth. This covers people who have received their library degree as well as non-librarians.53YALSA Competencies for Librarians Serving YouthLeadership and ProfessionalismCommunication, Outreach and MarketingKnowledge of Client GroupAdministrationKnowledge of MaterialsAccess to InformationServicesYALSA had a pre-existing framework of competencies they felt Youth librarians should develop.54The competencies outline the skills and knowledge teen services librarians need to have in order to provide excellent service to this unique age group.YALSA grant proposal to the DML CompetitionOften these skills are developed once librarians have gotten a job serving young adults.55YALSA Competencies for Librarians Serving YouthLeadership and ProfessionalismCommunication, Outreach and MarketingKnowledge of Client GroupAdministrationKnowledge of MaterialsAccess to InformationServicesYALSA had these 7, planning to issue a badge as library workers demonstrated each competency.56YALSA Competencies for Librarians Serving YouthLeadership and ProfessionalismCommunication, Outreach and MarketingKnowledge of Client GroupAdministrationKnowledge of MaterialsAccess to InformationServicesTheyre starting with these three, {list} and then expanding the system to the full 7 once it gets going57Communicator Badge Outcomes

Effectively use social media and mobile technologies in order to advocate for the age groupEffectively use social media and mobile technologies to inform teens about what a library has to offerUnderstand how to select the best technology tool in order to successfully get a message out to a specific audience and for a specific purpose.Use a variety of tools to identify the needs and interests of underserved teensFor each of the competencies, they already had defined outcomes they wanted librarians to demonstrate, like this badge for Communication, Outreach & Marketing.

When YALSA issues this badge, theyre making a claim that the earner can perform these skills on the job. These are specific things, what a lot of people in the badging community call granular skills, in contrast to big credentials like degrees that recognize many skills and experiences at once.58

Fill in who are the players in this diagram.

Badge issuer = YALSA, national professional organizationBadge earner = librarians and library workers serving young adults

Audience = ?????59What will YALSA badge earners do with their badges?

Who will they show?60Badge earners can be innovative in how they use the badges:"Sarah Flowers, YALSA President 2011-12This is what YALSA had to say about it: {quote}61"...in virtual resumes or portfolios..."Sarah Flowers, YALSA President 2011-12"...in their yearly employee evaluation or goal-setting process..."Sarah Flowers, YALSA President 2011-12"...on web pages or blogs..."Sarah Flowers, YALSA President 2011-12"...or in some other way that showcases the work theyve done.Sarah Flowers, YALSA President 2011-12

The goal of YALSAs badge system is to issue badges to librarians and library workers to recognize developing competencies that theyll use in serving young adults.66What are some benefits of using badges?

How do they relate to workforce competencies?Badges let you recognize skills learned outside of your formal schooling.I see this as being very relevant to libraries, as much as what libraries do is helping others learn outside of the sphere of formal education.68Badges let you recognize micro-level skills and achievements.Telling a more complex, nuanced story about a persons learning. Compared to traditional degrees, which is a slip of paper, maybe a transcript. Badges include proof of specific achievements, often linked to the evidence of that achievement. You dont usually get that with a traditional bachelors degree.69Badges let learners show off each achievement in the right context.You can pick and choose which badges to display to tell the story that you want to tell, just as you might tailor your resume to different job positions. Badges can also be used in different online contexts: online resume, portfolio, blog, etc.70National association of manufacturersBadges to recognize skills for manufacturing

YALSA, a division of the ALA focusing on young adult services71

Use this diagram to explain how the the NAM badges move through the ecosystem. Earners: high schoolers participating in chapters of Project Lead The Way and SkillsUSA.72[M-badges] will recognize the critical skills that are learned in settings other than educational institutions but are highly sought by manufacturers.National Association of Manufacturers

Students who participate in Project Lead the Way chapter sponsored classes in their high schools, completing project-based courses, earn badges and develop skills that are useful in all sorts of workplaces, including manufacturing.74Employers post job opportunities and connect with badge earners.We work for manufacturers.Brent Weil, The Manufacturing InstituteThis badge system is designed for manufacturers, to help them find the skilled employees they need. Build positive perceptions of manufacturing.76Working with high school students who may be involved in STEM, but dont think manufacturing is very glamorous.

Assessing soft skills needed by employersThis is a hard principle to implement. It involves building content programs and assessments that provide adequate evidence of soft skills. Though, they could be as informal as a personal recommendation by an instructor.78Protecting ValidityDidnt want to give out 100k badges without much meaning behind them.Balance the need to protect the badges validity with a desire for a good pace of adoption.

Where and how do badges fit in the workplace?(cc-by-sa Hugo Chisholm)Badges let you recognize skills learned outside of your formal schooling.

Badges let you recognize micro-level skills and achievements.Badges let learners show off each achievement in the right context.

Some discussion questionsWhat important skills do workers learn on the job at your workplace or institution?YALSA: Library Skills

What could you claim about the librarian who put together this display?Newton Free Library (cc-by-nc-nd)Manufacturing:Where can young people learn skills specific to an industry or sector?Newton Free Library (cc-by-nc-nd)

(cc-by-nd BISGOVUK) Can you represent employees as a collection of their competencies?ResourcesHungry for more?88

Weekly conference calls

Active discussion community

Technical Documentation

Visual design tools

Lightweight issuing platforms

Someone to ask questions

Someone to ask questionsDesign Principles Documentation ProjectOut Now: January Interim Report

http://iudpd.indiana.edu/JanuaryReport Design Principles Documentation ProjectOut Now: Design Principles Card Deckhttp://iudpd.indiana.edu/CardDeck

Design Principles Documentation ProjectNew: DPD Project Websitehttp://dpdproject.info

Any more questions?Thomas Hawk (cc-by-nc)Thank you for coming!

Nate OttoProject CoordinatorDesign Principles Documentation ProjectIndiana University@ottonomy

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