nature of light youngeinstein particle (photon)wave wave-particle duality (what does this mean?)

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  • Nature of LightYoungEinsteinParticle (photon)WaveWave-Particle Duality(What does this mean?)

  • Rutherfords Gold Foil ExperimentOne day Geiger came to and said, Dont you think that young Marsden,whom I am training in radioactive methods, ought to begin a small research? Now I had thought that too, so I said, Why not let himsee if any alpha particles can be scattered through a large angle? I maytell you in confidence that I did not believe that there would be, sincewe knew the alpha particle was a very fast massive particle, with a greatdeal of energy, and you could show that if the scattering was due to theaccumulated effect of a number of small scatterings the chance of an alphaparticle being scattered backward was very small.Ernest Rutherford (1871 1937)

  • Then I remember two or three days later Geiger coming to me in great excitement and saying, We have been able to get some ofthe alpha particles coming backwards It was quite the mostincredible event that has ever happened to me in my life. It wasalmost as incredible as if you fired a 15-inch shell at a piece of tissue paper and it cam back and hit you.

  • Atomic SpectraHydrogenHeliumMercuryNeon

  • The Hydrogen SpectrumJohann Jakob Balmer (1825 - 1898)

  • Johannes Rydberg (1854 1919)WalterRitz (1878 1909)Ritz Combination PrincipleThe sum of the frequencies of two spectral lines equalsthe frequency of a third.

  • Lyman LinesBalmer LinesPaschen LinesThe Complete Hydrogen Spectrum

  • Energy Diagram for the Hydrogen Atom

  • Bohr Model of the Hydrogen AtomNeils Bohr (1885 1962)

  • Matter WavesLouis de Broglie (1892 1987)l = h/p

  • L. H. GermerC. J. DavissonCrystalline Nickel as an Electron Targetstudying electron scattering from a nickel target at Bell Laboratories. After heatingthe target to remove an oxide coating that had accumulated during an accidental break in the vacuum system, they found that the scattered-electron intensity as a function of the scattering angle showed maxima and minima. Their target hadcrystallized, and by accident they had observed electron diffraction.Physics by Paul A. TiplerElectron Diffraction Observed in 1927

  • Electron as Orbiting WaveConstructive InterferenceDestructive Interference(Standing Wave)

  • Quantized Orbits Due To Standing Wave Req.

  • Now What?Erwin Schrodinger (1887 1961)The wave function contains all possibleinformation about a system, so instead of speaking of the state described by thewave function Y, we simply say thestate Y.Quantum Chemistry by Ira N. Levine

  • What is the Wave Function?Max Born (1882 1970)Quantum mechanics does not say that an electron isdistributed over a large region of space as a wave isdistributed. Rather, it is the probability patterns(wave functions) used to describe the electronsmotion that behave like waves and satisfy a waveequation.Quantum Chemistry by Ira N. Levine



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