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  • NATIONALISM:REVOLUTIONS IN LATIN AMERICAWhy were nationalistic revolutions occurring throughout Latin America?

    MexicoSpanish South America

  • Latin American Class SystemThe successes of the American & French Revolutions along with the Enlightenment began to spread into Spain & Portugals colonies In Latin America, there was a strong class system set up by the people who were from the Iberian Peninsula (Spain & Portugal)Your rights depended where you were in this system

    PeninsularesCreoles (Criollo) MestizosSlavesIndiansEuropeans born in Spain/PortugalMixed Indian & EuropeanMixed African & EuropeanIndigenous PeopleEuropeans born in Latin AmericaMulattosAfrican Slaves

  • HAITI (Saint Domingue)1791: First Latin American revolution (Caribbean Islands)100K of the 500K enslaved Africans rose up against their masters in the French Colony of Saint Domingue (Haiti)The slaves were led by Toussaint LOvuverture

    Napoleon sends troops to retake the island French trick & capture Toussaint & take him to a prison in the French Alps Slave army now led by Jean-Jacques Dessailines 1804: Dessailines defeats French Army & creates nation of Haiti Napoleon leaves the Americas Significance: First totally successful African slave revolt and independent nation run by former slaves

  • SPANISH SOUTH AMERICASouth Americas wars of independence are led by two brilliant Creole Generals named Simon Bolvar & Jose de San MartnNeither support Spains king Joseph Bonaparte

    Simon BolvarJose de San Martn Venezuela declares independence from Spain in 1811 Bolivars volunteer army suffers many defeats1821-23 Bolvar wins, has liberated Venezuela & Colombia (Gran Colombia), he heads to Ecuador & PeruFrom Argentina (Rio De La Plata), San Martn starts an independence movement in 1816Spanish have a strong army in nearby Chile

  • 1817: San Martn teams up w/ a Irish-Peruvian named Bernardo OHiggins

    Bernardo OHiggins Together they crossed in the Andes Mountains into Chile Combined armies beat the Spanish in Chile San Martn heads north to Peru Bolivar leads combined armies. December 9, 1824 the final battle was won in Ayacucho, PeruPeru independent, Bolivia created

  • MEXICO & CENTRAL AMERICA (New Spain)1810: Padre Miguel Hidalgo calls for a rebellion against Spain

    To symbolize the start of the war of independence, Hidalgo rang the bells of his church- El Grito de Dolores Hidalgos Indian & Mestizo army began to march towards Mexico City. 80,000 strong The Spanish Army led by Creoles would defeat Hidalgos army in 1811 Hidalgo will be executed by the Spanish AuthoritiesPadre Miguel Hidalgo

  • Padre Jose Maria Morelos would continue the fight for independence but the Spaniards defeat his army

    Creoles unite with Mestizos and Indians calling for Independence from Spain Creole General Agustin Iturbide declares Mexican Independence in 1821 1821: Fed up w/ wars, Spain grants independence to Mexico which includes Central America Central America wants independence from Mexico Iturbide is overthrown and Central American states get independence in 1823 Five independent countries form United Provinces of Central America Jose Maria MorelosAgustin Iturbide

  • BRAZILAfter Napoleon invades Portugal, the King of Portugal moves his family and government to the colony of Brazil King Joo (John VI) declares Brazil the Kingdom of Portugal & BrazilAfter Napoleons defeat King Joo and his royal court returned to Portugal (Legitimacy) Joos son Pedro stays behind in Brazil

    Brazilian Creoles demanded independence from Portugal 8,000 Brazilians signed a petition asking for independence & to allow Joos son Dom Pedro to rule Brazil In 1822, King Joo agrees and grants Brazil independence Brazils independence was a bloodless revolution Dom Pedro I

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