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  • NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)AVIRIS: PEARL HARBOR, HAWAII

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  • NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging

    Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    LCLUC Update

    Robert O. Green(Tom Chrien, presenting)Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  • NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    Overview

    Objective & Approach

    Instrument

    Science

    Obtaining AVIRIS data

  • NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    Obtaining AVIRIS Data Existing AVIRIS data from the archive

    Free upon request to NASA investigators for data that is consistent with their investigation

    New Data in North America or planned deployment Develop a requirement for AVIRIS measurements that is consistent with funded or proposed

    NASA research. Place a flight request (time, location, platform, etc) and contact the cognizant Program Manager Support Program Manager s response to the flight hour and timing estimates.

    For dedicated international: AVIRIS measurements be required for the science objectives. This can be established

    programmatically by the Program Manager or based on the need for AVIRIS measurements in selected science proposals for the campaign.

    Deployment of AVIRIS on the ER-2 or Twin Otter is possible. There will likely be a difference in cost and capability. On the ER-2 the spatial resolution varies from 20 to 10 meters. On the Twin Otter from 6 to 2 meters. The Twin Otter is generally less expensive.

    For an international deployment it would be good to plan with the AVIRIS team at JPL beginning at least a year in advance. (however for Argentina planning began only 4 months in advance)

  • NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    AVIRIS Task Objectives

    Support NASA Code Y by measuring and delivering AVIRIS data sets to designated investigators

    Ensuring AVIRIS is a unique advanced technology imaging spectrometer for NASA Code Y science

  • NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    AVIRIS: The Imaging Spectroscopy Approach

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    Hematite Fe2O3

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    Hematite Fe2O3

    Spectroscopic ExampleThree materials detected

    Three materials identified

    Expressed concentrations derived

    Multi Spectral Example

  • NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    AVIRIS Measurement of the Spectrum

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    MODIS Multi-Spectral Bands

    224 AVIRIS Spectral Channels (10nm)

    Example Atmospheric Transmittance Spectrum

    O2

    H2O

    O3

    Scattering

    H20

    H20

    CO2

    H2O

    CO2

    H2O

    CH4

    O2H2OH2O

  • NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    AVIRIS Instrument

    AVIRIS is designed with 200 m detectors and F/1 optics.It is hard to imagine larger detectors or faster optics.The AVIRIS design is in the advanced technology zone of the physics of spectroscopic measurements

    AVIRIS Technology StatusThermal control 1997Low Altitude 1998 INU/GPS 1998Geo rectification 1998Onboard calibrator 1999Detector arrays 2000Digital signal chain 2001Onboard data storage 2001

  • NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    AVIRIS: PEARL HARBOR, HAWAIISpectral

    Range 370 to 2500 Sampling 9.8 nmAccuracy 0.5 nm

    RadiometricRange 0 to Max LambertianSampling 12 bitsAccuracy 96 percent

    Spatial (ER-2 / Twin Otter aircraft)Swath 11/2.2 km ER-2/TOSampling 20/4 m ER-2/TOAccuracy 20/4 m ER-2/TO

    Full INU/GPS geo rectification

  • NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    AVIRIS Low Altitude Capability

  • NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    AVIRIS Performance

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    AVIRIS MeasuredMODTRAN Predicted

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    AVIRIS 2000Hyperion Estimate

    Excellent calibration and high precision (SNR) are required for NASA Code Y scienceAVIRIS calibration is within 96% of an independent prediction

    AVIRIS SNR ranges from 1000 to 500 in the continuum regions of the spectrum

  • NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    AVIRIS Science

    AVIRIS data sets are used to pose and answer questions wherever a spectral signature or correlated spectral signature of interest exist in the 400 to 2500 nm spectral range

    With AVIRIS a full spectral signature is available for identification and quantification

    With AVIRIS there are generally more measurements than unknowns for a give objective. This leads to well constrained remote sensing solutions

  • NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)RESEARCH AND APPLICATIONS

    Atmosphere: water vapor, clouds properties, aerosols, absorbing gases Ecology: chlorophyll, leaf water, lignin, cellulose, pigments, structure,

    nonphotosynthetic constituents Geology and soils: mineralogy, soil type Coastal and Inland waters: chlorophyll, plankton, dissolved organics, sediments,

    bottom composition, bathymetry Snow and Ice Hydrology: snow cover fraction, grainsize, impurities, melting Biomass Burning: subpixel temperatures and extent, smoke, combustion

    products Environmental hazards: contaminants directly and indirectly, geological

    substrate Calibration: aircraft and satellite sensors, sensor simulation, standard validation.. Modeling: radiative transfer model validation and constraint Commercial: mineral exploration, agriculture and forest status Algorithms: autonomous atmospheric correction, advance spectra derivation Other: human infrastructure...

  • NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    AVIRIS Cuprite, NV

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    Muscovite K2Al4[Si6Al2O20](OH)4 Montmorillonite (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2Si4O10(OH)2*nH2OAlunite KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6 Kaolinite Al4[Si4O10[(OH)8Gypsum CaSO4.2H2O Goethite FeO.OHJarosite NaFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6 Calcite CaCO3Dolomite CaMg(CO3)2 Hematite Fe2O3

    Spectroscopic identification of surface mineralogy

  • NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    VEGETATION SPECTRUM

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    Wavelength (nm)

    Refle

    ctan

    ce

    Chlo

    roph

    yll a

    ,bbe

    ta C

    arot

    ene

    Anci

    llary

    Pi

    gmen

    ts

    Cellular Scattering

    Water

    Water

    WaterWater

    Water

    CelluloseLignin

    Sugar

    Cellulose

    Starch

    Lignin

    Cellulose

    ProteinSugar

    Starch

    Protein

  • NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

  • NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

  • NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

  • NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    Leadville, CO Acid and Heavy Metal Hazard

  • NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    Analysis of Dimensionality of 1999 AVIRIS data set

    513 Scenes spanning full 1999 AVIRIS data collectionsOne scene per flightline

    Calculated spectral sum and squared sums for eigen analysisUsed MNF approach to normalize noise for eigen value of 1.0

    Values above one contain real surface variability References:

    Boardman, J. W. and Robert O. Green, Exploring the Spectral Variability of the Earth as Measured by AVIRIS in 1999, Proc. Ninth Airborne Earth Science Workshop, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2000Green, R. O. and Joseph Boardman, Exploration of the Relationship between Information Content and Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Spatial Resolution in AVIRIS Spectral Data, Proc. Ninth Airborne Earth Science Workshop, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2000

  • NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    1999 AVIRIS Bulk Eigen Plot

    10x3x

  • NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    AVIRIS 1999 Scene Conservative (3XNoise) Dimensionalityfor 513 Scenes analyzed (10, 20, 30, 40, 50)

    Red 1000x, Yellow 100x, Green 10x, Blue 5x, Magenta 3x

  • NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    Analysis of Dimensionality of 1999 AVIRIS data set

    1999 AVIRIS data set dimensionality approaches 100

    Most of this dimensionality derived from the land surface reflected signal.

    AVIRIS has contribution to make in understanding land cover and land use change with remote sensing measurements.

  • NASAs Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)

    AVIRIS Literature

    A citation search for AVIRIS in titles and abstract shows 231 refereed journal articles currently published.

    The AVIRIS workshops contain over 473 papers. These are available on-line at the AVIRIS web site.

    There are many additional AVIRIS papers in SP

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