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  • Naresh i Technologies By Mr. Ramesh

    Naresh i Technologies, Opp. Satyam Theatre, Ameerpet, Hyderabad, Ph: 040-23746666, 9000994007

    ::1::

    HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the main markup language for creating web pages and other information that can be displayed in a web browser like Internet Explorer. The purpose of a web browser is to read HTML documents and compose them into visible or audible web pages. The browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses the tags to interpret the content of the page. In the name HyperText Markup Language, HyperText refers to the fact that HTML allows you to create links that allow visitors to move from one page to another quickly and easily. A Markup Language allows you to annotate text and these annotations provide additional meaning to the contents of a document.

    HTML code is made up of characters that live inside angled brackets(< and >) and these are called HTML elements. HTML elements are made up of two tags: an opening tag and a closing tag(The closing tag has an extra forward slash in it). Each HTML element tells the browser something about the information that sits between its opening and closing tags. HTML tags most commonly come in pairs like (opening tag) and (closing tag) , although some tags, known as empty elements, are unpaired, for example
    . Attributes provide additional information about the contents of an element. They appear on the opening tag of the element and are made up of two parts: a name and a value separated by an equals sign. Attribute name indicates what kind of extra information you are supplying about the element’s content. It should be written in lowercase. The value is the information or setting for the attribute. It should be placed in double quotes. Different attributes can have different values.

    HTML elements form the building blocks of all websites. HTML allows images and objects to be embedded and can be used to create interactive forms. It provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links, quotes and other items. It can embed scripts written in languages such as JavaScript which affect the behavior of HTML web pages.

    Web browsers can also refer to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to define the appearance and layout of text and other material. The W3C, maintainer of both the HTML and the CSS standards, encourages the use of CSS over explicit presentational HTML markup.

    HTML 5

    HTML5 is a cooperation between the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG). WHATWG was working with web forms and applications, and W3C was working with XHTML 2.0. In 2006, they decided to cooperate and create a new version of HTML.

    Some rules for HTML5 were established:

     New features should be based on HTML, CSS, DOM, and JavaScript

     Reduce the need for external plugins (like Flash)

     Better error handling

     More markup to replace scripting

     HTML5 should be device independent

     The development process should be visible to the public

    DocType declaration at the top of HTML document specifies the type of document and this document type declaration is required in XML documents. But in HTML it is optional. It is not a HTML element. Syntax

    for doctype declaration in HTML 5 is

  • Naresh i Technologies By Mr. Ramesh

    Naresh i Technologies, Opp. Satyam Theatre, Ameerpet, Hyderabad, Ph: 040-23746666, 9000994007

    ::2::

    Basic Tags Of HTML

    HTML documents must start with tag and must end with tag.

    Used to provide a title for the document, define java script and CSS required for the page and meta data of the page.

    Used to Define a title for the page that will be displayed in titlebar of the browser while accessing the page. It must be inside the element.

    Used to define java script functions required for the page.

    The tag is used to provide an alternate content for users that have disabled scripts in their browser or have a browser that doesn’t support client-side scripting. The element can contain all the elements that you can find inside the < body> element of a normal HTML page. The content inside the element will only be displayed if scripts are not supported, or are disabled in the user’s browser.

    Used to define CSS styles required for the page. It must be inside the element.

    The tag defines the relationship between a document and an external resource. The tag is most used to link to style sheets. The element is an empty element, it contains attributes only. This element goes only in the head section, but it can appear any number of times.

    Used to provide meta data information of the page like author name, description, keywords and refresh the page at specified interval. It must be within the element and it has the following syntax.

    The following statement provides author name of the page

    The following statement provides description of the page

    The following statement provides keywords for the page that will be used by search engines to find your page

    The following statement makes the page refresh for every 30 seconds

    Used to specify the actual content to display on the page

  • Naresh i Technologies By Mr. Ramesh

    Naresh i Technologies, Opp. Satyam Theatre, Ameerpet, Hyderabad, Ph: 040-23746666, 9000994007

    ::3::

    Creating HTML Page

    To create a HTML page you can use any text editor like notepad, wordpad and MS Word. After writing required HTML code for your page in any text editor save it with extension .html or .htm. To browse your page open a browser and request for your page by specifying the complete path of your HTML page.

    Example : The following example creates a HTML page with basic HTML tags

    Naresh I Technologies This is body of the page that will be displayed within the main area of the browser

  • Naresh i Technologies By Mr. Ramesh

    Naresh i Technologies, Opp. Satyam Theatre, Ameerpet, Hyderabad, Ph: 040-23746666, 9000994007

    ::4::

    Formatting Tags Of HTML

    Used to create a paragraph Used to make the text bold Used to make the text italic Used to make the text underlined (this element was phased

    out)

    Used to make the text center aligned (Not Supported in HTML 5) Used to make the text super script Used to make the text sub script
    Used to create a line break Used to create a horizontal rule Used to indicate the text has strong importance and browsers will show the

    contents of element in bold.

    Used to make the text larger (Not Supported in HTML 5) Used to make the text smaller Used to indicate emphasis that subtly changes the meaning of a sentence and

    browsers will show the contents of element in italic.

    Used to provide an abbreviation or acronym. In HTML 4 a separate element is used for acronym. But HTML 5 uses element for both abbreviation and acronym. Both have title attribute to provide the full term.

    cite tags defines a citation and displaying in italics Used to provide address of a person or office Used to show the content that has been inserted into a document. Used to show the text that has been deleted from the document. Used to indicate something that is no longer accurate or relevant but that

    should not be deleted. Content of element will usually be displayed with a line through the center.

    Used create headings and element will provide the heading with large

    font and element with very small font.

    Used to specify the code of a program Used to indicate sample output of a program Used to indicate keyboard input for a program Used to indicate variable in a program Use to specify the text direction full form of bdo is Bi Directional Override This Text Will Be Displayed From Right To Left

  • Naresh i Technologies By Mr. Ramesh

    Naresh i Technologies, Opp. Satyam Theatre, Ameerpet, Hyderabad, Ph: 040-23746666, 9000994007

    ::5::

    Example : The following example demonstrates how to create paragraphs and use element.

    This is First Paragraph

    This is Second Paragraph

    Example : The following example demonstrates the , , , and elements.

    This line is in bold

    This line is in italic

    This line is underlined

    This word is in superscript

    This word is in subscript

    Example : The following example demonstrates heading elements to

    This is heading level 1 This is heading level 2 This is heading level 3 This is heading level 4 This is heading level 5 This is heading level 6

    Example : The following example demonstrates , and elements

    This Book was Bad Good Sony Laptop Actual Price 45000
    But Now Only 40000

    Example : The following example demonstrates and elements

  • Naresh i Technologies