NAEYC 2011 Learning Galleria Presentation

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<p>Teacher Efficacy and Teacher BehaviorsXin Gao Meg Gravil University of Kentucky</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Teachers self-efficacy is positively related to student achievement (Goddard, Hoy &amp; Woolfolk, 2000) Teachers judgments about her/his capabilities has powerful effects on her/his behaviors (Tschannen-Moran &amp; Hoy, 2001) The mechanism by which teacher self-efficacy exerts an influence on student achievement relates to the influence of teacher self-efficacy on classroom quality and practices (Goddard &amp; Goddard, 2001)</p> <p>Background</p> <p>However, very few studies have directly explored the hypothesized relations between self-efficacy and student achievement with respect to the potential moderating role of classroom quality. Researchers have reported a discrepancy, or at best only a small correlation, between selfreported beliefs and actual classroom behaviors of teachers (Bryant, Clifford, &amp; Peisner, 1991; Charlesworth, Hart, Burts, &amp; Hernandez, 1991; Hyson, 1991; Kemple, 1996).</p> <p>Purpose of Study Describe</p> <p>teachers beliefs about self-</p> <p>efficacy Describe teachers actual interactions with children in the classroom Illustrate the differences between beliefs and behaviors</p> <p>Methods Thirty</p> <p>nine (39) classroom teachers were asked to complete the self-efficacy scalethe Ohio State teacher efficacy scale (OSTES) Teacher-child interactions were observed in thirty seven (37) classrooms using Classroom Assessment Scoring SystemPre-K version (CLASS) and Emerging Academic Snapshot (SNAPSHOT)</p> <p>Teachers Self-Efficacy Student Engagement (4 items) Classroom Management (4 items) Instructional Strategies (4 items) Strategies for Children with Special Needs (6 items)</p> <p>Teachers Self-Efficacy: Results On a 9 point scale</p> <p>Teacher scored an average 7.32 on Student Engagement (min 3.17, max 9.00 range 0-9)</p> <p>Teacher scored an average 7.25 on Instructional Strategies (min 3.17, max 9.00 range 0-9)Teacher scored an average 7.03 on Classroom Management (min 3.17, max 9.00 range 0-9) Teacher scored an average 6.62 on Strategies for Children with Special Needs (min 3.17, max 9.00 range 0-9)</p> <p>Classroom Assessment Scoring System- (CLASS)</p> <p>Emotional Support (1-7) Positive Climate Negative Climate Teacher sensitivity Regards for student perspectives</p> <p>Classroom Management (1-7) Productivity Behavioral Management Instructional learning Formats</p> <p>Instructional Strategies (1-7) Concept Development Quality of Feedback Language Modeling</p> <p>Results of CLASS On</p> <p>a 1 to 7 scale</p> <p>Teachers scored an average 5.06 on Emotional Support Teachers scored an average 4.50 on Classroom Management Teachers scored an average 1.81 on Instructional Support</p> <p>CLASS comparisonsKentuckyMinimum Emotional Support Classroom Management Instructional Support Maximum Mean</p> <p>Other studiesMulti-State Tulsa (pre&amp; SWEEP K) means means</p> <p>1.67 2.96</p> <p>5.41 6.59</p> <p>3.99 4.87</p> <p>3.80 4.62</p> <p>3.86 4.94*</p> <p>1.00</p> <p>4.25</p> <p>2.05</p> <p>2.56</p> <p>3.10*</p> <p>*Tulsa pre-K study did not collect data on one indicator in each of these two dimensions</p> <p>CorrelationsInstructional Support Student Engagement Instructional Strategies Classroom Management Strategies for Children with Special Needs 0.026 Emotional Support 0.36 Classroom Organization 0.25</p> <p>0.0860.012 -.017</p> <p>0.43*0.34 0.27</p> <p>0.320.22 0.24</p> <p>* Statistically significant at .05</p> <p>Correlations, cont</p> <p>As teachers years experience in the field increased, Positive Climate scores increased (r = -.357, p &lt; .01) As teachers views about their current position increased, Regard for Student Perspectives increased (r = .361, p &lt; .05) As teachers experience in current program increased, beliefs in efficacy regarding classroom engagement increased (r = .318, p &lt; .05) As teachers experiences in current program increased, beliefs in efficacy regarding classroom engagement increased (r = .441, p &lt; .01)</p> <p>SNAPSHOT: Teacher-child engagementPer cent of time spent in engagement29.32</p> <p>19 12.9 8 2.8 0.52 Assistant Teacher 9.3</p> <p>Literate Scaffolds Didactic</p> <p>0.83 Lead Teacher</p> <p>2.1 0.23 1.02 Other Adults</p> <p>1.58 All Adults</p> <p>Emerging Academics Snapshot (SNAPSHOT)</p> <p>Ecobehavioral assessment: momentary time sampling data Provides information about activity setting and engagement in pre-academic activities5</p> <p>sections: Activity Setting (meals, whole group, etc) Peer Interaction (parallel, simple social, etc) Child Engagement (read to, math, social studies, etc) Adult Interaction (no response, elaborated, etc) Teacher-Child Engagement (scaffolds, didactic, etc)</p> <p>Classroom profiles Created</p> <p>to illustrate characteristics of classrooms with high quality as measured by CLASS and SNAPSHOT scores Characteristics, when combined, depict practices amenable to positive outcomes for children Describe classroom climate (CLASS) and ways teachers engage children (SNAPSHOT)</p> <p>Profile 1: Instructional Support and Scaffolds</p> <p>Teachers in low IS and low Scaffolding classrooms reported Personal Professionalism ratings almost significantly lower than teachers in high IS and high Scaffolding classrooms Personal professionalism indicates degree to which teachers view their current position as a career Teachers who were more invested in their teaching as a career (as opposed to a job) deliberately facilitated childrens engagement in learning activities and higher-order thinking skills</p> <p>Profile 2: Instructional Support and Literate</p> <p>Teachers in classrooms with low IS and high Literate scores reported significantly lower levels of Personal Professionalism than teachers in classrooms with high IS and low Literate scores Teachers less invested in teaching as a career are more apt to simply read to children without engaging them by asking questions or relating story events to childrens real life experiences</p> <p>Profile 3: Instructional Support and Didactic</p> <p>Teachers in classrooms high in IS and low in Didactic reported significantly higher levels of Personal Professionalism than teachers in classrooms low in IS and low in Didactic Teachers who view their position as a career facilitate richer, more intentional learning environments that value reciprocity in engagements with children than teachers who view their position as merely a job</p> <p>Implications</p> <p>Teachers may indicate stronger beliefs in their abilities than their actual classroom practices indicate Professional development may look into teacher training, focusing on detailed practice guidelines instead of general principles</p> <p>Further Questions Do</p> <p>teachers understand what constitutes quality in early childhood education? What is the reason for disconnect between teacher beliefs and practices?</p> <p>How can this gap be bridged?</p> <p> Do</p> <p>teachers have sufficient knowledge and skills to implement best practices?</p>