my world history core concepts my world history. core concepts: history and geography
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My World History Core Concepts My World History Slide 2 Core Concepts: History and Geography Slide 3 Measuring Time: Using a Timeline A timeline is a line marked off with a series of events and dates. Historians use timelines to put events in chronological order. A period is a length of time singled out because of a specific event or development that happened during that time. Example: The Bronze Age or The Age of Exploration Slide 4 Measuring Time: Organizing Time Prehistory is the time before humans invented writing. We can also organize history by beginning with a key event from the past. Example: The Birth of Jesus B.C. (Before Christ) or B.C.E. (Before Common Era) A.D. (anno Domini = in the year of our Lord) or C.E. (Common Era) Examples of Calendars: Jewish Maya and Aztec Gregorian Islamic Slide 5 Historical Sources: Primary and Secondary Sources A primary source is information that comes directly from a person who experienced an event. Examples: Letters Diaries Speeches Photographs A secondary source is information about an event that does not come from a person who experienced that event. Examples: Paintings Textbooks Magazine Articles Slide 6 Historical Sources: Evaluating Historical Sources Historical sources dont always give a true account of events. Historians must evaluate a source to determine its reliability Who created the source material? Is the information fact or opinion? Des the material seem to have a bias ? Slide 7 Archaeology and Other Sources: Archaeologists and Anthropologists Archaeology is the scientific study of ancient cultures through the examination of artifacts and other evidence. Anthropology is the study of humankind in all aspects, especially development and culture. Clues from the past can come from oral traditions. A communitys cultural and historical background, passed down in spoken stories and songs. Example: The Odyssey Slide 8 Geographys Five Themes Location: Absolute Location describes a places exact position on Earth in terms of longitude and latitude. Relative Location describes the location of a place relative to another place. Place refers to the mix of human and nonhuman features at a given location. Region is an area with at least one unifying physical or human feature such as climate, landforms, population, or history. Movement explores how people, goods, and ideas get from one place to another Human-Environment Interaction considers how people affect their environment and how their environment affects them. Slide 9 Understanding Maps Key Compass Rose Scale Bar Locator Map Longitude and Latitude Slide 10 Historical Maps A historical map is a special purpose map that provides information about a place at a certain time in history. Slide 11 Core Concepts: Citizenship and Economics Slide 12 Foundations of Government: Origins of Government A government is a group of people who have the power to make and enforce laws for a certain country or area. Early governments consisted of people living in groups with their leader(s). As cities began to grow so did their governments. Slide 13 Foundations of Government: Powers of Government A constitution is a system of basic rules and principles by which a government is organized. Limited government is a government structure in which government actions are limited by law. Example: U.S. Government Unlimited government is a government structure where there is no effective limits on government actions. Example: Chinese Government Tyranny occurs when there is an unjust use of power. Slide 14 Political Systems A state is a region that shares a common government. A city-state is an independent state consisting of a city and its surrounding territory. An empire is a state containing several countries. A democracy is a form of government in which citizens hold political power Direct Democracy Representative Democracy A nation-state is a state that is independent of other states. A monarchy is a form of government in which the state is ruled by a monarch (king/queen) An authoritarian government is one in which all power is held by a single person or a small group Communism is a political and economic system in which government owns all property and makes all economic decisions. Slide 15 Political Structures In a unitary system a central government makes all laws for the entire country. In a federal system power is divided among central, regional, and local governments. Central Government=U.S. Capital Regional Government=Ohio State Capital Local Government=City of Chillicothe Branches of Government Legislative Branch U.S. Congress Executive Branch U.S. President Judicial Branch U.S. Supreme Court Slide 16 Citizenship A citizen is a legal member of a country. Our responsibilities include a duty to participate in government and civic life, or activities having to do with ones society and community. Civic Participation =taking part in government Political party Interest group Slide 17 Economic Basics Economics is the study of how people meet their wants and needs. The difference between wants and reality creates scarcity, or having a limited quantity of resources to meet unlimited wants. Opportunity cost is the cost of what you have to give up. Demand is the desire for a certain good or service. Supply is the amount of a good or service that is available for use. Producers are people or businesses that make and sell products. Consumers are people or businesses that buy, or consume, products. An Incentive is a factor that encourages people to act in a certain way. Slide 18 Economic Process A market is an organized way for producers and consumers to trade goods and services. Businesses and the Economic Process Profit is the money that a company has left after subtracting the costs of doing business. Revenue is the money earned by selling goods and services. Specialization is the act of concentrating on a limited number of goods or activities. Competition occurs when there is a struggle among producers for consumers money. In a growing economy, prices may increase over time. This general increase in prices is called inflation. Example: $1.00 in 1920 had the same buying power as $10.50 in 2009! A decline in economic growth for six or more months in a row is known as a recession. Slide 19 Economic Systems A traditional economy is an economy in which people make economic decisions based on their customs and habits. A market economy is an economy in which individual consumers and producers make economic decisions. A command economy is an economy in which the central government makes all economic decisions. A mixed economy is an economy that combines elements of traditional, market, and command economic systems. Slide 20 Trade Trade is the exchange of goods and services in a market. Exports are goods and services produced within a country and sold outside the countrys borders. Imports are goods and services sold in a country that are produced in other countries. A tariff is a tax on imports or exports. A trade barrier is a government policy or restriction that limits international trade. Today, many countries are working toward free trade, or the removal of trade barriers. Slide 21 Money Management A budget is a plan that shows income and expenses over a period of time. Saving is the act of setting aside money for future use. Interest is the price paid for borrowing money. Credit is an arrangement in which a buyer can borrow to purchase something and pay for it over time. Example: Credit Cards Investing is the act of using money in the hope of making a future profit. A stock is a share of ownership in a company. A bond is a certificate issued by a company or government promising to pay back borrowed money with interest. Slide 22 Core Concepts: Culture Slide 23 What is Culture? Culture is the beliefs, customs, practices, and behaviors of a particular nation or group of people. A cultural trait is an idea or way of doing things that is common in a certain culture. A norm is a behavior that is considered normal in a particular society. A cultural region is an area in which a single culture or cultural trait is dominant. Example: French Canadian (Quebec) Human activities create cultural landscapes, or geographic areas that have been shaped by people. Slide 24 Religion Religion is a system of worship and belief, including belief about the nature of a god or gods. Examples: Judaism Christianity Islam Hinduism Buddhism Sikhism Traditional Religions Religion can also guide people in matters of ethics, or standards of acceptable behavior. Slide 25 Cultural Diffusion and Change A cultural hearth is a place where cultural traits develop. Cultural Diffusion is the spread of cultural traits from one culture to another. Food Language Clothing Diversity is cultural variety. Slide 26 Science and Technology Science is the active process of acquiring knowledge of the natural world. Technology and Culture Control of Fire Irrigation (supply water to crops) Wheel Printing press Steam Engine Refrigeration Standard of Living is the level of comfort enjoyed by a person or a society.