musical instruments 2 Музыкальные Инструменты musical instruments
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The saxophone is a member of the woodwind family. Saxophones are usually made of brass and are played with a single-reed mouthpiece similar to the clarinet. The saxophone was invented by Adolphe Sax in 1841. He wanted to create an instrument that would both be the loudest of the woodwinds and the most versatile of the brass, and would fill the then vacant middle ground between the two sections. He patented the sax in 1846 in two groups of seven instruments each: various sizes in alternating transposition. While proving very popular in its intended niche of military band music, the saxophone is most commonly associated with popular music, big band music, blues, early rock and roll, ska and particularly jazz. There is also a substantial repertoire of concert music Saxophone players are called saxophonists.Ravel's scoring for the instrument in Bolero features famous Sax solo
.In the 1920s the bass saxophone was used often in classic jazz recordings, since at that time it was easier to record than a tuba or double bass. It is also used in the original score (and movie) of Leonard Bernstein's West Side Story.
The saxophone has been more recently introduced into the symphony orchestra, where it has found increased popularity
Maracas are also very popular with childrenThe word maraca is thought to have come from the Tupi language of Brazil, where it is pronounced 'ma-ra-KAH'. They are known in Trinidad as shac-shacs.Although a simple instrument, the method of playing the maracas is not obvious. The seeds must travel some distance before they hit the leather, wood, or plastic, so the player must anticipate the rhythm. One can also strike the maraca against one's hand or leg to get a different sound. Band leader Vincent Lopez hosted a radio program in the early 1950s called Shake the Maracas in which audience members competed for small prizes by playing the instrument with the orchestra.Maracas are heard in many forms of Latin music and are also used in pop and classical music. They are considered characteristic of the music of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Colombia, Venezuela, Mexico, Jamaica and Brazil. Maracas are often played at celebrations and special events. In rock and roll, they are probably most identified with Bo Diddley, who wrote the song "Bring it to Jerome" about his maraca player, Jerome Green. Maracas is a native instrument of Puerto Rico. Maracas They are simple percussion instruments (idiophones=produce sound by vibrating themselves)Maracas are usually played in pairsMaracas consist of a dried calabash or gourd shell or coconut shell filled with seeds or dried beans. They may also be made of leather, wood, or plastic.Often one maraca is pitched high and the other is pitched low. There are in existence clay maracas used by the Indians of Colombia, 1500 years ago.
The term first appeared in the Ukrainian language in the 18th century in documents from 1717-1732. It is thought that the term was borrowed into Russian where it first appeared a poem by V. Maikov "Elysei" in 1771.In the 1880s Vassily Vassilievich Andreyev developed a standardized balalaika made with the assistance of violin maker V. Ivanov. Since then it was widely used for Russian folk music.The balalaika is a stringed instrument of Russian origin, Blalaika has characteristic triangular body and 3 strings (or sometimes 6, in 3 courses).The balalaika family of instruments includes: the prima, sekunda, alto, bass and contrabass balalaika. All have three-sided bodies, spruce or fir tops and backs made of from 3-9 wooden sections, and all have 3 strings. The prima balalaika is played with the fingers, the sekunda and alto either with the fingers or a pick depending on the music being played, and the basses and contrabassesThe most common solo instrument is the prima, tuned E-E-A
. Wooden bars were originally seated on a series of hollow gourds, and the gourds generated the resonating notes that are produced on modern instruments by metal tubes. For centuries, xylophone makers struggled with methods of tuning the wooden bars. Old methods consisted of arranging the bars on tied bundles of straw, and, as still practiced today, placing the bars adjacent to each other in a ladder-like layout. The earliest evidence of a xylophone is from the 9th Century in southeast Asia according to the Vienna Symphonic Library, and there is a model of a similar hanging wood instrument, dated to ca. 2000 BC in China.It is likely that the xylophone reached Europe during the Crusades By 1830, the xylophone had been popularized to some extent by a Russian virtuoso named Michael Josef Gusikov, who through extensive tours, made the instrument known. Gusikov was praised by noted musicians, including Felix Mendelssohn, Frederic Chopin, and Franz Liszt.
The xylophone (from the Greek words - xylon, "wood" + - phone, "voice", meaning "wooden sound") is a percussion family instrumentIt consists of wooden bars of various lengths that are struck by plastic, wooden, or rubber mallets. Each bar is tuned to a specific pitch The xylophone originated independently in Asia and Africa.An older theory states that the instrument was invented in Indonesia and spread subsequently to Africa
Harp's origins may lie in the sound of a plucked hunter's bow stringHarps were most likely independently invented in many parts of the world in remote prehistoryThe oldest depictions of harps without a forepillar are from 4000 BC in Egypt and 3000 BCE in PersiaIn antiquity harps and lyres were very prominent in nearly all musical cultures, but they lost popularity in the early 19th century with Western music composers, being thought of primarily as a woman's instrument after Marie Antoinette popularised it as an activity for women.The aeolian harp (wind harp), the autoharp, and all forms of the lyre and Kithara are not harps because their strings are not perpendicular to the soundboard; they are related to pianos and harpsichords. Handel wrote a Harp Concerto in B flat and Mozart - Concerto for Flute and HarpA harp is a stringed instrument which has the plane of its strings positioned perpendicular to the soundboard.Harp can also be used as percussion instrumentAll harps have a neck, resonator and strings. Some, known as frame harps, also have a forepillar; those lacking the forepillar are referred to as open harps. Depending on its size (which varies considerably), a harp may be played while held in the lap or while stood on the floor. A person who plays the harp is called a harpist or a harper. Various types of harps are found in Africa, Europe, North, and South America, and a few parts of Asia.
Guitar is a stringed instrumentGuitars strings are plucked or strummed with the right hand while the fingers on the left hand press down one or more strings.Guitar typically has six strings (E, A, D, G, B, E), but four, seven, eight, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen and eighteen string guitars also exist.Instruments similar to the guitar have been popular for at least 4,000years. The modern form of the guitar was developed in Spain in late 1800sUntil 20th c. it was mostly used in folk musicAndres Segovia helped to establish the guitar as instrument for classical musicGuitars are recognized as one of the primary instruments in flamenco, jazz, blues, country, mariachi, rock music, and many forms of pop. In classical music guitars are used as soloIn classical music guitars usually have nylon strings; in pop music steel strings.Guitars are made and repaired by luthiers.The guitar player (c. 1672), by Johannes VermeerGuitars may be played acoustically, where the tone is produced by vibration of the strings and modulated by the hollow body, or they may rely on an amplifier that can electronically manipulate tone. Such electric guitars were introduced in the 1930s and continue to have a profound influence on popular culture.
Angelika Kauffmann: L'Allegra, 1779The first piece to make the triangle really prominent was Franz Liszt's Piano Concerto No. 1, where it is used as a solo instrument A notable player of the triangle in popular culture is John Deacon of the rock group Queen. He would play the triangle in live performances of Killer Queen, hanging it from his microphone.The triangle is an idiophone type of musical instrument in the percussion family. It is a bar of metal (usually steel), bent into a triangle shape with one of the angles is left open, with the ends of the bar not quite touching. Open end causes the instrument to be of indeterminate or not settled or decided pitch. Triangle is either suspended from one of the other corners by a piece of thin wire or gut, leaving it free to vibrate, or hooked over the hand. Triangle is usually struck with a metal beater, giving a high-pitched, ringing tone.Early instruments were often formed as isosceles triangles and had jingling rings In folk music, samba and rock music a triangle is more often hooked over the hand so that one side can be damped by the fingers to vary the tone. The pitch can also be modulated slightly by varying the area struck and by more subtle damping.In European classical music, the triangle has been used in the western classical orchestra since around the middle of the 18th century. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn and Ludwig van Beethoven all used it
The oboe is a double reed musical instrument of the woodwind family. Oboe was developed in France in 17th centuryIn English prior to 1770, the instrument was called "hautbois", "hoboy", or "French hoboy". The spelling "oboe" was adopted into English ca. 1770 from the Italian obo, a transliter