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  • Multi-Index Drought Monitoring:

    A Global Drought GeoServer

    Amir AghaKouchak, Zengchao Hao, and

    Navid Nakhjiri

    University of California, Irvine

  • Multi-Index Drought Monitoring

    Different drought indices based on different climate variables (e.g.,

    Precipitation, soil moisture):

    Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)

    Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI)

    Standardized runoff Index (SRI)

    Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI)

    SPI 2012-1

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SSI 2012-1

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    PSI 2012-1

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SPI 2012-2

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SSI 2012-2

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    PSI 2012-2

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SPI 2012-3

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SSI 2012-3

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    PSI 2012-3

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SPI 2012-4

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SSI 2012-4

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    PSI 2012-4

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

  • Multi-Index Drought Monitoring SPI 2007-1

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SSI 2007-1

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    MSDI 2007-1

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SPI 2007-2

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SSI 2007-2

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    MSDI 2007-2

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SPI 2007-3

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SSI 2007-3

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    MSDI 2007-3

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SPI 2007-4

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SSI 2007-4

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    MSDI 2007-4

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

  • Multi-Index Drought Monitoring

    3-, 6- and 12-month drought conditions based on Standardized Precipitation

    Index (SPI) and Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI) for Climate Division 3 in

    California.

  • Multi-Index Drought Monitoring

    A Multi-Index Approach Using a Joint Distribution Function

    ),( yYxXPp

    )(),( YGXFCp

    C is the copula and F(X) and G(Y) are the marginal cumulative distribution

    functions of precipitation (X) and soil moisture (Y), respectively

    Multi-Index Standardized Drought Index (MSDI)

    pMSDI 1

    where is the standard normal distribution function.

  • Multi-Index Drought Monitoring

    Deriving the Joint Distribution of Precipitation and Soil Moisture

    )(),( YGXFCp

    Non-Parametric Models Yue et al., 1999

    where n is the length of the observations; and mk is the number of the pair (xi, yi) for xi xk and yi yk

    112.044.0),( nmyxP kkk

  • Multi-Index Drought Monitoring

    3-month SPI, SSI, MSDI

    for Climate Division 3 in

    California.

    Monthly precipitation

    and soil moisture from

    1/1932 to 12/2010

    Precipitation : NCDC

    Soil Moisture: CPC

    1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996-5

    -4

    -3

    -2

    -1

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    Year

    3--Month

    SPI SSI JDI

    1990 1992

    -2.5

    -2

    -1.5

    -1

    -0.5

    1988

    -2.5

    -2

    -1.5

    -1

    -0.5

    1976

    -2.5

    -2

    -1.5

    -1

    -0.5

    MSDI

  • Multi-Index Drought Monitoring

    3-month SPI, SSI, MSDI

    for Climate Division 5 in

    California.

    Monthly precipitation

    and soil moisture from

    1/1932 to 12/2010

    Precipitation : NCDC

    Soil Moisture: CPC

    1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996-5

    -4

    -3

    -2

    -1

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    Year

    3--Month

    SPI SSI JDI

    1976 1978

    -2.5

    -2

    -1.5

    -1

    -0.5

    1988 1990 1992

    -2.5

    -2

    -1.5

    -1

    -0.5

    MSDI

  • Multi-Index Drought Monitoring

    SPI 2007-1

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SSI 2007-1

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    MSDI 2007-1

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SPI 2007-2

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SSI 2007-2

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    MSDI 2007-2

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SPI 2007-3

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SSI 2007-3

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    MSDI 2007-3

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SPI 2007-4

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SSI 2007-4

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    MSDI 2007-4

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    1-Month SPI and SSI Derived

    Using NASA MERRA-LAND

    Precipitation and soil moisture

    Data.

  • Multi-Index Drought Monitoring

    SPI 2007-1

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SSI 2007-1

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    MSDI 2007-1

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SPI 2007-2

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SSI 2007-2

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    MSDI 2007-2

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SPI 2007-3

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SSI 2007-3

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    MSDI 2007-3

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SPI 2007-4

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    SSI 2007-4

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    MSDI 2007-4

    -120 -100 -80

    30

    35

    40

    45

    1-Month SPI and SSI Derived

    Using NASA MERRA-LAND

    Precipitation and soil moisture

    Data.

  • Multi-Index Drought Monitoring

    1-Month SPI and SSI Derived

    Using NASA MERRA-LAND

    Precipitation and soil moisture

    Data.

    SPI 2012-1

    a30354045

    SSI 2012-1 MSDI 2012-1

    SPI 2012-2

    b30354045

    SSI 2012-2 MSDI 2012-2

    SPI 2012-3

    c30354045

    SSI 2012-3 MSDI 2012-3

    SPI 2012-4

    d

    -120 -100 -80

    30354045

    SSI 2012-4

    -120 -100 -80

    MSDI 2012-4

    -120 -100 -80

    0

    2

    4

    SPI 2012-1

    a30354045

    SSI 2012-1 MSDI 2012-1

    SPI 2012-2

    b30354045

    SSI 2012-2 MSDI 2012-2

    SPI 2012-3

    c30354045

    SSI 2012-3 MSDI 2012-3

    SPI 2012-4

    d

    -120 -100 -80

    30354045

    SSI 2012-4

    -120 -100 -80

    MSDI 2012-4

    -120 -100 -80

    0

    2

    4

  • Multi-Index Drought Monitoring

    Probability of detection (POD) of drought using 1-month SPI, SSI and MSDI

    Month

    PO

    D

    SPI 2012-1

    a30354045

    SSI 2012-1 MSDI 2012-1

    SPI 2012-2

    b30354045

    SSI 2012-2 MSDI 2012-2

    SPI 2012-3

    c30354045

    SSI 2012-3 MSDI 2012-3

    SPI 2012-4

    d

    -120 -100 -80

    30354045

    SSI 2012-4

    -120 -100 -80

    MSDI 2012-4

    -120 -100 -80

    0

    2

    4

    SPI 2012-1

    a30354045

    SSI 2012-1 MSDI 2012-1

    SPI 2012-2

    b30354045

    SSI 2012-2 MSDI 2012-2

    SPI 2012-3

    c30354045

    SSI 2012-3 MSDI 2012-3

    SPI 2012-4

    d

    -120 -100 -80

    30354045

    SSI 2012-4

    -120 -100 -80

    MSDI 2012-4

    -120 -100 -80

    0

    2

    4

    SPI 2012-1

    a30354045

    SSI 2012-1 MSDI 2012-1

    SPI 2012-2

    b30354045

    SSI 2012-2 MSDI 2012-2

    SPI 2012-3

    c30354045

    SSI 2012-3 MSDI 2012-3

    SPI 2012-4

    d

    -120 -100 -80

    30354045

    SSI 2012-4

    -120 -100 -80

    MSDI 2012-4

    -120 -100 -80

    0

    2

    4

    SPI 2012-04 SSI 2012-04 MSDI 2012-04

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 80

    0.2

    0.4

    0.6

    0.8

    1

    a

    SPI SSI MSDI

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 80

    0.2

    0.4

    0.6

    0.8

    1

    Month

    b

    SPI SSI MSDI

  • Multi-Index Drought Monitoring

    Probability of detection (POD) of drought using 1-month SPI, SSI and MSDI

    Month

    PO

    D

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 80

    0.2

    0.4

    0.6

    0.8

    1

    a

    SPI SSI MSDI

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 80

    0.2

    0.4

    0.6

    0.8

    1

    Month

    b

    SPI SSI MSDI

    Probability of detection (POD) of drought using 6-month SPI, SSI and MSDI

    Month

    PO

    D

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 80

    0.2

    0.4

    0.6

    0.8

    1

    a

    SPI SSI MSDI

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 80

    0.2

    0.4

    0.6

    0.8

    1

    Month

    b

    SPI SSI MSDI

  • A Global Drought GeoServer

    http://drought.eng.uci.edu/index.html

  • A Global Drought GeoServer

    http://drought.eng.uci.edu/index.html

  • A Global Drought GeoServer

    http://drought.eng.uci.edu/index.html

  • A Global Dr

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