MRI of mass transport in porous media: Drying and sorption processes

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<ul><li><p>MR</p><p>IgorInterna</p><p>a</p><p>ArticleReceiveAccepteAvailab</p><p>KeyworMagnetPorousDryingSorptioP</p><p>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2oblems and remedies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3easured, and how . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6sport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7s media MRI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7t . . . . .homogmogene. . . . . .</p><p>4.3. Variation of temperature and pH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284.4. Swelling in liquid mixtures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294.5. Imaging of a swelling polymer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304.6. Polymer swelling upon vapor uptake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304.7. Swelling and deswelling of coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314.8. Other studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31</p><p> Tel.: +7 383 333 3561; fax: +7 383 333 1399.</p><p>Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 65 (2012) 165</p><p>Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect</p><p>Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance SpectroscopyE-mail address: koptyug@tomo.nsc.ru3.1. General considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123.2. Building materials and stones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123.3. Building materials and stones with protective treatments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153.4. Transport of solutes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173.5. Sorption of gases and vapors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193.6. Other studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26</p><p>4. MRI of polymer swelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264.1. General considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264.2. Polymer swelling in liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.1. The scope of this review . .1.2. General considerations . . .1.3. MRI and porous media: pr1.4. The MRI toolkit: what is m1.5. Quantification of mass tran</p><p>2. MRI techniques and instrumentat2.1. Techniques used for porou2.2. Specialized MRI equipmen2.3. Toward an improved field2.4. NMR spectroscopy in inho</p><p>3. MRI of sorption processes . . . . . .0079-6565/$ - see front matter 2011 Elsevier B.V. Adoi:10.1016/j.pnmrs.2011.12.001. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9eneity for single-sided and mobile instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10ous fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Contentsolymer swellingds:ic resonance imagingmaterials</p><p>nhistory:d 21 September 2011d 5 December 2011le online 14 December 2011</p><p> 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c tV. Koptyug tional Tomography Center, SB RAS, 3A Institutskaya Str., Novosibirsk 630090, Russian FederationI of mass transport in porous media: Drying and sorption processes</p><p>journal homepage: www.elsevier .com/locate /pnmrsll rights reserved.</p></li><li><p>. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .sy. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .</p><p>denitely not there.</p><p>ii.</p><p>ing various individual tools to meet the needs of a particular</p><p>tic Rcesses such as polymerization of monomers and curing ments and to acquire spatially resolved information about the uidical and/or in vivo studies and studies of plants are beyondthe scope of this review. In addition, not included (or men-tioned only briey) are the studies of skin, food products,soil, textiles and wood.Drying and sorption: These are dened as processes in whichthe amount of a uid (or a solute) in a solid material eitherdecreases or increases with time. This may be accompaniedby the changes in the molecular mobility of the uid mole-cules and/or the porous material itself. Processes such ashardening of cementitious materials, solidication of poly-meric lm coatings and paints are included even though insome cases (e.g., curing and hydration of cement) a uidmay not actually leave the sample. At the same time, pro-</p><p>tration and dispersion processes are not included either.</p><p>1.2. General considerations</p><p>Mass transport is ubiquitous in nature, in modern technologicalprocesses and in everyday life. Therefore, the rst obvious reason tostudy mass transport processes is the need to better understandthem. And even if the original motivation of some studies is merecuriosity, once we understand these processes we inevitably cometo the point when we want to improve them, i.e., make them safer,more efcient, more environment-friendly, etc. In order to studymacroscopic mass transport in porous materials during the dryingand sorption processes, it is essential to perform dynamic measure-formally classied as porous. At the same time, the biomed- processes, etc. As already mentioned, MRI studies of ow, l-porous ceramics, cement-based materials, porous rocksand stones, coal, beds of porous and non-porous particles,elastomers, polymers and polymer gels, pharmaceutical dos-age forms, and thin lms of adhesives, binders, coatings andpaints are included even though some of them may not be</p><p>q-space imaging and performed in the space of displace-ments. Also not included are the studies where MRI isapplied to acquire images and parameter maps of an objectwhich is not changing over time, i.e., purely morphologicalstudies, the studies of relaxation and steady-state diffusioni. Porous materials: A rather loose denition of a porous mate-rial is adopted below. Any material inside which transport ofa uid is possible is considered to be porous. Therefore,</p><p>study. MRI here has its traditional meaning, i.e., the acquisi-tion of an image or a prole resolved in the space of actual(Cartesian) coordinates (k-space imaging), as opposed tothe average propagator studies sometimes referred to as5. MRI of model and commercial drug delivery systems. . . . . . . . . . . .5.1. General considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.2. Immediate release systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.3. Cellulose and its derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.4. Cellulose derivatives with model drugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.5. Other polysaccharides (starch, xanthan, alginate, chitosan) . .5.6. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) .5.7. Acrylates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.8. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) .5.9. Glycolide, lactide, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) . . . . . .5.10. Coated formulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.11. Hydrodynamically balanced systems (HBS). . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.12. Osmotic systems and pushpull gastrointestinal therapeutic5.13. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), stimulus response .5.14. Other studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .</p><p>6. MRI of drying processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.1. General considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.2. Drying of rigid matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.3. Drying-induced transport of salts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.4. Drying accompanied by an extensive matrix change . . . . . . .6.5. Drying of thin films and coatings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6.6. Other materials and processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .</p><p>7. Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .</p><p>1. Introduction</p><p>1.1. The scope of this review</p><p>A title seldom gives exhaustive information about the content itprecedes. Consequently, we sometimes nd ourselves disap-pointed when we realize that a paper is not about what we ex-pected it to be. Therefore, rst of all, the scope of this review isoutlined. This is done through the introduction of the working def-initions of the terms used in the title. They are not intended to berigorous, but rather dene the meaning of these terms within thecontext of this review, with the main goal of giving the reader abetter idea of what he/she can expect to nd below and what is</p><p>2 I.V. Koptyug / Progress in Nuclear Magneand cross-linking of polymers are covered only briey. Alsoexcluded are the studies of saturated or unsaturated single-or multi-phase ow and ltration of uids in porous media.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38stems (GITS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58</p><p>iii. Mass transport: Only macroscopic mass transport is...</p></li></ul>