Movement analysis

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<ul><li> 1. Movement Analysis </li> <li> 2. Neuromuscular Function: I. The Motor Unit: </li> <li> 3. II. The Structure of Muscle Tissue: </li> <li> 4. III. The Role of Neurotransmitters in stimulating skeletal muscle contraction: A. Acetylcholine (Ach): increases the post- synaptic membranes permeability to sodium and potassium ions spreading the impulse over the entire muscle fiber. </li> <li> 5. B. Cholinesterase: enzyme that breaks down Ach repolarizing the muscle fiber to await another nerve impulse. </li> <li> 6. IV. Skeletal Muscle Contraction: </li> <li> 7. A. The sliding filament theory: Steps of a muscle contraction: *Ca++ are released by the sarcoplasmic reticulum. *Ca++ binds to troponin preventing the blocking action of tropomyosin. </li> <li> 8. Sliding filament cont. *myosin heads can now attach to active sites on the actin filament. *myosin heads pulls on the actin filament, decreasing the width of the sarcomere Z- lines get closer. *myosin head releases the actin when a new ATP is formed. </li> <li> 9. Explain what is happening in an eccentric, concentric, and isometric contraction in relation to the sliding filament theory? </li> <li> 10. V. Types of Muscle Fibers: A. Slow Twitch: (type 1) *smaller in diameter *reddish color *use aerobic resp. for ATP supply *contain more mitochondria *fire slowly, but take long to fatigue. </li> <li> 11. B. Fast Twitch: used for short explosive movements, stop and go sports. Type IIA: *large diameter *white in color *less mitochondria *uses both anaerobic and aerobic energy transfer Type IIB: *same physical characteristics as Type IIA, but strictly uses the glycolytic anaerobic system. </li> <li> 12. Joint and Movement Type A. Types of Joint Movement: 1. Abduction: movement away from the bodys center. 2. Adduction: movement towards the bodys center. </li> <li> 13. 3. Circumduction: making circular movements. 4. Dorsiflexion: movement of the ankle elevating the sole. (digging in the heel) 5. Plantar flexion: extending the ankle and elevating the heel. (standing on tiptoes) </li> <li> 14. 6. Elevation: occurs when a structure moves in a superior (towards head) manner. Ex. Closing your mouth/elevating the shoulders. 7. Depression: movement is inferior (towards feet). Ex. opening your mouth/lowering the shoulders </li> <li> 15. 8. Extension: movement that increases the angle between articulating elements opening the joint. 9. Flexion: decreases the angle between articulating elements and closes the joint. </li> <li> 16. 10. Pronation: rotating the palm down. 11. Supination: rotating the palm up. 12. Rotation: turning the body around a longitudinal axis. </li> <li> 17. 13. Inversion: when the ankle rolls outward. 14. Eversion: ankle roles inward. </li> <li> 18. B. Types of Muscle Contraction: 1. Isotonic: describes concentric and eccentric muscle actions. a. Concentric: muscle is shortened during contraction. b. Eccentric: muscle is contracting while lengthening. </li> <li> 19. 2. Isometric: muscle generates force without changing length. Ex. Hand grip and plank position. 3. Isokinetic: the speed of movement is fixed and the resistance varies with the force exerted. *requires special equipment! </li> <li> 20. C. Reciprocal Inhibition: describes muscles on one side of a joint relaxing while the other side is contracting. (antagonistic pairs) 1. Agonist: muscle that causes the movement. 2. Antagonist: muscle that works opposite the agonist to return the joint to its initial position. </li> <li> 21. D. Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness: (DOMS) The pain and stiffness felt in muscles several hours to days after unaccustomed or strenuous exercise. *brought on by eccentric contractions of the muscle causing pressure at the nerve endings. </li> <li> 22. Biomechanics: the science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on the human body and the effects they produce on the body. a. Force: a pushing or pulling action that causes a change of state (rest/motion) of a body. *proportional to mass x acceleration *measured in Newtons (N) </li> <li> 23. Types of Motion Translation: Motion along a path results in a change of location examples: Position, Velocity, Net force Rotational: Rigid of a body about an axis Orientation of the axis, Angular position, Rotational motion occurs when an object spins Deformation: motion inside of an object like tension, buckling, bending, stretching, twisting, compression, or expansion., </li> <li> 24. Measuring Movement Measurement with size and direction is known as a vector Measurement with only size is a scalar </li> <li> 25. Newtons Laws of Motion in Sport 1. First Law: a body in motion/rest will remain in motion/rest in a straight line unless acted upon by another force. Also known as inertia. </li> <li> 26. 2. Second Law: the rate of change of momentum of a body is proportional to the force causing it and the change takes place in the direction in which the force acts. (F= M A) </li> <li> 27. Law of Acceleration The acceleration of an object is in the direction of the net force. If you push or pull an object in a particular direction, it accelerates in that direction. The acceleration has a magnitude directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force. If you push twice as hard (and no other forces are present), the acceleration is twice as big. The magnitude of the acceleration is inversely proportional to the mass of the object. That is, the larger the mass, the smaller the acceleration for a given net force (which is just as youd expect from inertia). </li> <li> 28. 3. Third Law: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. (every force involves the interaction of two objects) </li> <li> 29. b. Speed: describes the rate at which a body moves from one location to another. *Distance/Time. *speed is described in terms of magnitude (amount) which makes it a scalar quantity. </li> <li> 30. c. Distance vs. Displacement 1. Distance: (scalar) the length of a path a body or object follows 2. Displacement: (vector) body or object changes its position from on place to another i.e. how far the body or object has moved horizontally, vertically and laterally. </li> <li> 31. d. Velocity: the rate at which a body moves from one location to another with both magnitude (speed) and direction making it a vector quantity. *Displacement/Time </li> <li> 32. e. Acceleration: is defined as the rate at which velocity changes over time and the ability to change ones speed from either a static position or a moving state. Final velocity initial velocity/time </li> <li> 33. f. Momentum: is a vector describing a quantity of motion and is the product of mass and velocity. *an athlete can increase their momentum by either increasing their mass or velocity. </li> <li> 34. g. Impulse: the effect of force over time. Calculated as the product of force and time. </li> <li> 35. Speed and Acceleration Lab Moment of Inertia How difficult a body or object is to rotate about an axis More mass further away from the axis gives a great moment of inertia and makes it more difficult to rotate Example </li> <li> 36. h. Center of mass: the point at which the body is balanced in all directions. *a change in body position can change the position of the center of mass within or outside the body. *Different for individuals *depends on age, gender and position of limbs during athletics </li> <li> 37. a. Conservation of Momentum: momentum is neither gained or lost within a closed system. Total momentum before a collision equals the total momentum after. </li> <li> 38. b. Angular Momentum: a measurement of an objects tendency to continue to spin. It is the product of angular velocity and moment of inertia. 1. Moment of inertia: the distance from the rotational axis. 2. Angular velocity: the number of revolutions per minute. </li> <li> 39. The Fosbury Flop! *notice how the center of gravity is located outside the jumpers body. </li> <li> 40. Examples of the center of gravity outside the body. </li> <li> 41. Center of Mass Center of mass and center of gravity are effectively the same for the human body Point where the body is evenly distributed The "center of mass AN IMAGINARY point on the body at which all the individual forces acting on the body if applied would produce the same effect IF THAT IMAGINARY POINT WAS CONNECTED RIGIDLY TO EVERY OTHER POINT ON THE BODY Hula hoop </li> <li> 42. Used to measure movement through calculations. </li> <li> 43. What technique works better? Video </li> <li> 44. Torque (moment) Force applied to an object that is free to rotate around an axis, but the force does not act through the axis Depends on: The size of the force The direction of the force How far it is applied from the axis of rotation </li> <li> 45. Torque In the golf swing, power comes from good rotation, but how is this rotation achieved? You need resistance, or a foundation from which the rotation happens. This foundation is your hips. (rotate back slightly). Relieving tension and reducing the swing power (rotate too much) </li> <li>...</li></ul>