Most Popular Motivation Theory

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    Saturday, January 08, 2011 Makerere University Business School 1

    MOTIVATION AND WORKDISCIPLINE & RULES

    Presented by:

    Moses Bazibu

    Lecturer Faculty of Commerce

    Makerere University Business SchoolKampala Uganda

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    Objectives

    Over view and definition of motivation.

    Appreciate how to motivate employees to

    improve performance. Understand the different views of

    motivation.

    To realize the different techniques ofmotivation.

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    1.0 Introduction

    At one time, employees were considered just another input into the production ofgoods and services.

    What perhaps changed this way ofthinking about employees was research,

    referred to as the Hawthorne Studies,conducted by Elton Mayo from 1924 to1932 (Dickson, 1973).

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    Introduction Contd

    This study found employees are notmotivated solely by money and employeebehavior is linked to their attitudes

    (Dickson, 1973).

    The Hawthorne Studies began the humanrelations approach to management,

    whereby the needs and motivation ofemployees become the primary focus ofmanagers (Bedeian, 1993).

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    Motivation has been defined as: thepsychological process that gives behaviorpurpose and direction (Kreitner, 1995);

    A predisposition to behave in a purposivemanner to achieve specific, unmet needs(Buford, Bedeian, & Lindner, 1995);

    An internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied

    need (Higgins, 1994); And the will to achieve (Bedeian, 1993).

    2.0 Motivation defined

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    For this paper, motivation is operationallydefined as the inner force that drivesindividuals to accomplish personal andorganizational goals.

    That is, Work motivation refers toconditions which influence the arousal,

    direction, and maintenance of behavioursrelevant in work settings.

    Definition Contd

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    3.0Role of Motivation

    Why do we need motivated employees? Theanswer is survival (Smith, 1994).

    Motivated employees are needed in our

    rapidly changing workplaces. Motivated employees help organizations

    survive. Motivated employees are moreproductive.

    To be effective, managers need tounderstand what motivates employeeswithin the context of the roles theyperform.

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    Role Contd

    Of all the functions a manager performs,motivating employees is arguably themost complex. This is due, in part, to the

    fact that what motivates employeeschanges constantly (Bowen &Radhakrishna, 1991). E.g. Researchsuggests that as employees' income

    increases, money becomes less of amotivator (Kovach, 1987). Also, asemployees get older, interesting workbecomes more of a motivator.

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    Content Theories of motivation

    The Need Hierarchy Theory

    The ERG Theory

    McClellands perspective

    Two Factor Theory Hertzberg.

    The Process theories of Motivation

    Expectancy Theory Victor Vroom

    Equity Theory J- Stacy Adams

    The reinforcement Theory B. F Skinner.

    4.0 Different Views of

    Motivation

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    4.1 Content Theories of motivation

    These focus on the content of an individualspersonal needs. These theories focus on individualunderlying factors that predispose them to behave

    in certain ways. There is a belief that employeesbehave in ways that will lead to the satisfaction oftheir needs.

    Content theories of work are attributed to scholarslike Abraham Maslow (NHT), Alderfer (ERGtheory), Mc clelland (n Ach. Theory) andHertzberg (Two factor theory).

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    4.2 The Needs Hierarchy Theory

    This is the most popular motivation theory thatmanagers use to motivate employees. The NHTis based on certain assumptions/premises.

    Employees are motivated by a desire to satisfy severaltypes of needs.

    Only needs which have not been satisfied can act asmotivators i.e. once a need is satisfied, it ceases to be

    a motivator. Needs are arranged in a hierarchical order of

    importance from the most basic physiological to morecomplex psychological needs.

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    4.3 McClellands perspective

    Mc Clelland focused his attention on three learnedneeds; I.e. The Need for achievement, Need foraffiliation and Need for power.

    People with high need for achievement havecertain characteristics:

    Set themselves moderately difficult goals to beaccomplished.

    They like to take personal responsibility for work

    results. They desire frequent feedback and consultation. Prefer a job in which success depends on effort

    rather than chance.

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    McClellandsContd

    Need for Power refers to the desire to

    influence others that it to exert control over

    others. Such people seek for positions of

    leadership in the groups which they work.

    Need for Affiliation - Individuals with high

    need for affiliation are motivated by

    companionship. Such people seek out personal

    approval from those they admire.

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    4.3 The Process theories ofMotivation

    These theories focus on the underlyingpsychological processes that generate motivationwithin individuals. There are two theories under

    the process theories:1.Expectancy Theory Victor Vroom

    This theory states that people are motivated

    depending on their perceived a job expectancy.Expectancy theory suggests that people will bemotivated if they feel that performance will lead tocertain outcomes.

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    ProcesstheoriesContd

    2. Equity Theory J- Stacy Adams

    This theory suggests that the motivation of

    employees is influenced by the extent towhich they perceive they are treated fairly.Individual at work evaluate their inputsagainst a comparison person. A comparison

    person is someone in a comparableorganisational situation the person can bewithin or outside the organisation.

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    4.4 The reinforcement Theory B. F Skinner.

    This theory explains the ways in which varioustypes of rewards and punishments influenceemployee behaviour and performance in

    organisations. According to this theory, employeebehaviour is largely determined by itsconsequences, that is pleasant consequences tendto be repeated, while unpleasant consequencesare less likely to be repeated.

    Therefore, managers should put rewards to highperformance and punishment to low performance.The underlying notion is issue of behaviouralreinforcement.

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    5.0 Motivation Techniques

    Management by Objectives

    Job enlargement

    Job rotation Behaviour Modification.

    Flexitime

    Part-Time Work and Job Sharing

    Telecommuting

    Employee Empowerment.

    Self-Managed Work Teams

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    TechniquesContd

    5.1 Management by Objectives

    The primary purpose of MBO is to clarify the

    roles that the employees are expected to play inreaching the organization's goals. MBO allows

    subordinates to participate in goal setting and in

    performance- evaluation.

    5.2 Behaviour Modification.

    This is the use of a systematic program of

    reinforcement to encourage desirable behavior.

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    TechniquesContd

    5.3 Job enlargement.

    This Involves expanding a worker's assignments to

    include additional but similar tasks. It incr