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<p>CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY</p> <p>MONOLITHIC DOMES</p> <p>01</p> <p>PRESENTED BY: AHMAD FARAZ AND NILESH.M.SHANDILYA</p> <p>GENERAL OVERVEIW monolithic dome (from Greek mono- and -lithic, meaning "one stone") The form may be permanent or temporary and may or may not remain part of the finished structure.</p> <p>CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY</p> <p>The earliest form of monolithic dome structure could be considered to be the igloo The dome-like shape of the igloo exhibits the two major advantages of a dome-shaped structure: great strength, and good insulation. The strength is due to the natural strength of the arch, and the insulation is due to the minimal surface area of a spherical section. which can withstand disasters like tsunamis, earthquakes, cyclones and floods. The physical geometry of a building affects its aerodynamic properties and how well it can withstand a storm. Geodesic dome roofs or buildings have low drag coefficients and can withstand higher wind forces than a square building of the same area. [1][2] Even stronger buildings result from monolithic dome construction. Modern construction differs significantly from the original concrete-over-dirt method. The current methods were developed by three brothers from Idaho: Barry, Randy, and David South. The first dome built using these method was constructed in Shelley, Idaho: The largest monolithic dome in the world is the home of Faith Chapel Christian Center in Birmingham, AL. It seizes the record at 72 feet (22 m) tall, and 280 feet (85 m) in diameter. Inside is a floor area of 74,500 square feet (6,920 m2) in two levels. The church was designed by Architect Rick Crandall</p> <p>This domed government building inBaghdad, formerly a part of Saddam Hussein's regime, was hit by a 5,000 lb (2,300 kg). Bomb. Apart from the hole made by the entry of the bomb, it remained structurally sound.</p> <p>02</p> <p>PRESENTED BY: AHMAD FARAZ AND NILESH.M.SHANDILYA</p> <p>1. INTRODUCTION MONOLITHIC IS DEDICATED TO IMPROVING PEOPLES LIVES WORLDWIDE BY INTRODUCING AND</p> <p>CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY 03</p> <p>CONSTRUCTING MONOLITHIC DOMES, FOR PERSONAL AND PUBLIC USE, THAT ARE DISASTER-RESISTANT, ENERGY-EFFICIENT AND COST-EFFECTIVE. THEY ARE COST-EFFICIENT, EARTH-FRIENDLY, EXTREMELY DURABLE AND EASILY MAINTAINED. MOST IMPORTANTLY, A MONOLITHIC DOME USES ABOUT 50% LESS ENERGY FOR HEATING AND COOLING THAN A SAME-SIZE, CONVENTIONALLY CONSTRUCTED BUILDING. MONOLITHIC DOMES MEET FEMA STANDARDS FOR PROVIDING NEAR-ABSOLUTE PROTECTION AND HAVE A PROVEN ABILITY TO SURVIVE TORNADOES, HURRICANES, EARTHQUAKES, MOST MANMADE DISASTERS, FIRE, TERMITES AND ROT.</p> <p>MONOLITHIC DOMES ARE NEITHER RESTRICTED BY CLIMATE NOR BY SITE LOCATION. IN TERMS OF ENERGY</p> <p>CONSUMPTION, DURABILITY, DISASTER RESISTANCE AND MAINTENANCE, MONOLITHIC DOMES PERFORM WELL IN ANY CLIMATE, EVEN EXTREMELY HOT OR COLD ONES. AND THEY CAN BE CONSTRUCTED ON VIRTUALLY ANY SITE: IN THE MOUNTAINS, ON BEACHES, EVEN UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER. MANY SCHOOLS NOW CONDUCT THEIR CLASSES IN MONOLITHIC DOMES. SOME ARE DESIGNATED AS TORNADO SHELTERS. OTHERS HAVE MONOLITHIC DOME GYMNASIUMS, AUDITORIUMS, MULTIPURPOSE CENTERS, LIBRARIES, ETC. FEMA : FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCYS</p> <p>PRESENTED BY: SYED ARSHAD JAMAL AND AREEF AKHTAR</p> <p>2.CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUECONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY MONOLITHIC DOMES ARE CONSTRUCTED FOLLOWING A METHOD THAT REQUIRES A TOUGH, INFLATABLE AIRFORM, STEEL-REINFORCED CONCRETE AND A POLYURETHANE FOAM INSULATION. EACH OF THESE INGREDIENTS IS USED IN A TECHNOLOGICALLY SPECIFIC WAY. AIRFORM : THE MONOLITHIC AIRFORM IS A BALLOONLIKE, INFLATABLE STRUCTURE THAT DETERMINES THE SHAPE AND SIZE OF A DOME. ITS MADE OF PVC-COATED NYLON OR POLYESTER FABRIC, AVAILABLE IN SEVERAL WEIGHTS AND A RAINBOW OF COLORS. EACH MONOLITHIC AIRFORM IS DESIGNED FOR A SPECIFIC PROJECT AND MANUFACTURED IN BRUCO, A 240 60 FACTORY EQUIPPED WITH</p> <p>STATE-OF-THE-ART MACHINERY.STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE : 1. FOUNDATION 2. AIRFORM 3. POLYURETHANE FOAM</p> <p>4. STEEL REBAR5. SHOTCRETE</p> <p>04</p> <p>PRESENTED BY: SYED ARSHAD JAMAL AND AREEF AKHTAR</p> <p>STEP 1 - FOUNDATION : THE MONOLITHIC DOME STARTS AS A</p> <p>CONCRETE RING FOUNDATION, REINFORCED WITH STEEL</p> <p>CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY</p> <p>REBAR. VERTICAL STEEL BARS EMBEDDED IN THE RING ATTACHED TO THE STEEL REINFORCING OF THE DOME ITSELF. SMALL DOMES MAY USE AN INTEGRATED FLOOR/RING FOUNDATION. OTHERWISE, THE FLOOR IS POURED AFTER COMPLETION OF THE DOME. defining the shape of the base of the structure.</p> <p>STEP 2 -</p> <p>AN AIRFORM FABRICATED TO THE PROPER</p> <p>SHAPE AND SIZE IS PLACED ON THE RING BASE. USING</p> <p>BLOWER FANS, IT IS INFLATED AND THE AIRFORMCREATES THE SHAPE OF THE STRUCTURE TO BE COMPLETED. THE FANS RUN THROUGHOUT CONSTRUCTION OF THE DOME. The air form contains an airlock to allow workers to enter the form while it is inflated. THE AIRFORM IS A HIGHLY ENGINEERED FABRIC STRUCTURE THAT SHOULD BE HANDLED WITH GREAT CARE. MANY FACTORS ENTER INTO ITS ATTACHMENT TO THE CONCRETE FOUNDATION. MAKE SURE THE REBAR IS BENT OVER THE FOOTING TO</p> <p>05</p> <p>AVOID TEARING THE AIRFORM DURING INFLATION. PRESENTED BY: SYED ARSHAD JAMAL AND AREEF AKHTAR</p> <p>LAYING IT OUT :</p> <p>CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY</p> <p> THE ENTIRE CIRCUMFERENCE OF THE FOUNDATION MAY BE COVERED BEFORE ANY CLAMP STRAPS ARE BOLTED ON. THIS IS TO PERMIT ANY NECESSARY ADJUSTMENT OF THE ALIGNMENT OF THE AIRFORM TO THE FOUNDATION. BE SURE YOU ATTACH THE AIRFORM ON ONE SIDE, THEN ITS OPPOSITE. THEN ATTACH THE QUARTER POINTS, AND THEIR OPPOSITES AND CONTINUE EVENLY ALL THE WAY AROUND. THE AIRFORM WILL STRETCH TO FIT THE FOUNDATION IF YOU MEET THE INDIVIDUAL POINTS.</p> <p> THE CLAMP STRAPS ARE PLACED ABOVE THE ROPE ANDSECURED BY THE CONCRETE BOLTS AND SCREWS. SPACING OF THE FASTENERS SHOULD BE 6" TO 24" ON CENTER DEPENDING ON PRESSURE AND TYPE OF FASTENER USED. THE AIRLOCK IS THEN ATTACHED TO THE APPROPRIATE OPENING. INFLATE IN AS LITTLE WIND AS POSSIBLE AND AS RAPIDLY AS MAKES SENSE. INSPECT THE PERIMETER AS THE INFLATION PROGRESSES. WATCH FOR HANG-UPS OF THE AIRFORM.</p> <p>06</p> <p>PRESENTED BY: SYED ARSHAD JAMAL AND AREEF AKHTAR</p> <p>STEP 3 POLYURETHANE FOAM IS APPLIED TO THE INTERIOR SURFACE OF THE</p> <p>c : CHOOSE A FOAM FOAM COMES IN SEVERAL SET</p> <p>TIMES AND IS AVAILABLE FOR COLD ORWARM WEATHER. THE SPEED OF FOAM USED DEPENDS ON THE SEASON AND CLIMATE. d : FOAM APPLICATION SEAL BOTTOM OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE OF THE AIRFORM WITH FOAM. DO NOT COVER REBAR IN THE KEYWAY OR SPRAY FOAM IN THE KEYWAY. SPRAY FOAM EVENLY TO 1/2-INCH THICKNESS ON ENTIRE INTERIOR AIRFORM SURFACE. THE FOAM WILL DRY TO THE TOUCH IN THREE TO FOUR SECONDS. e : TEST THICKNESS SPRAY ANOTHER 1/2- TO 3/4-INCH LAYER OF FOAM,</p> <p>CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY</p> <p>AIRFORM. APPROXIMATELY THREE INCHES OF FOAM IS APPLIED. THE FOAM IS ALSO THE BASE FOR ATTACHING THE STEEL</p> <p>REINFORCING REBAR.(Its purposes are to give rigidity to the air form, secure the rebar in place, provide support for spraying in the concrete mixture, and insulate the final structure.) a: COVER AND PROTECT COVER THE REBAR, EQUIPMENT AND FLOOR WITH PLASTIC TO PROTECT FROM FOAM AND SHOTCRETE OVERSPRAY. b: PRIME! IF YOU WANT SOMETHING TO STICK TO THE AIRFORM, YOU NEED TO USE A PRIMER! A THIN LAYER IS ALL THAT IS</p> <p>MAKING THE TOTAL THICKNESS, AT THIS POINT,AN INCH AND A QUARTER.</p> <p>NEEDED (300-400 SQ. FT. PER GALLON). LETTHE PRIMER DRY COMPLETELY BEFORE APPLYING FOAM.</p> <p>07</p> <p>PRESENTED BY: SYED ARSHAD JAMAL AND AREEF AKHTAR</p> <p>STEP 4 :STEEL REINFORCING REBAR IS ATTACHED TO THE FOAM USING A SPECIALLY ENGINEERED LAYOUT OF</p> <p>CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY</p> <p>HOOP (HORIZONTAL) AND VERTICAL STEEL REBAR. SMALL DOMES NEED SMALL DIAMETER BARS WITH WIDE SPACING. LARGE DOMES REQUIRE LARGER BARS WITH CLOSER SPACING.</p> <p>STEP 5 :SHOTCRETE A SPECIAL SPRAY MIX OF CONCRETE IS APPLIED TO THE INTERIOR SURFACE OF THE DOME. THE STEEL REBAR IS EMBEDDED IN THE CONCRETE AND WHEN ABOUT THREE INCHES OF SHOTCRETE IS APPLIED, THE MONOLITHIC DOME IS FINISHED. THE BLOWER FANS ARE SHUT OFF AFTER THE CONCRETE IS SET.</p> <p>08</p> <p>PRESENTED BY: SYED ARSHAD JAMAL AND AREEF AKHTAR</p> <p>SHOTCRETING MIX COMPOSITION : FOR STRENGTH THIS IS FOR A SEVEN SACK MIX USED FOR SHOTCRETE</p> <p>FOR MAXIMUM STRENGTH UTILIZING KEL-CRETE AS</p> <p>CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY</p> <p>AND ADMIXTURE. THIS MIX DESIGN IS FOR 3/10S OF A CUBIC YARD USING TWO SACKS OF CEMENT. IT IS FORMULATED ESPECIALLY FOR THE MONOLITHIC PORTABLE CONCRETE MIXER, BUT WILL WORK WELL IN MOST 9 CUBIC FOOT MIXERS.</p> <p>CEMENT 188 LBS TWO SACKS OF STANDARD TYPE IOR II OR I-II PORTLAND CEMENT. THIS IS WHAT THE LUMBER YARD WILL CARRY. IT IS NOT MORTAR MIX.</p> <p>WATER ABOUT 80 LBS (10 GALLONS) WATER MUSTBE CLEAN (POTABLE). THIS WILL VARY FROM JOB TO JOB AND MUST BE ADJUSTED. THE WATER IN THE AGGREGATE WILL CAUSE A DIFFERENCE IN THE AMOUNT OF WATER NEEDED. ADJUST TO A PROPER SLUMP. 2" TO 6" AS NEEDED.</p> <p>CONCRETE SAND 690 LBS (TEN, 5 GALLONBUCKETS IS A GOOD APPROXIMATE MEASURE).</p> <p>PEA ROCK 140 LBS (TWO, 5 GALLON BUCKETS.) THEAMOUNT OF PEA ROCK IS ADJUSTED PER GRADATION OF THE SAND. IF THE SAND IS HIGH IN LARGER AGGREGATE THE PEA ROCK MAY BE LEFT OUT. IF IT IS LOW, THEN MORE MAY BE NEEDED.</p> <p>DUE TO PEAROCKS : IN A FREEZING EXPOSURE, A GOOD ENTRAINED AIR VOID SYSTEM IS A MUST, AND THE MIXTURE DEVELOPS 3500-PSI COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH BEFORE THE FIRST WINTER</p> <p>09</p> <p>PRESENTED BY: SYED ARSHAD JAMAL AND AREEF AKHTAR</p> <p>Monolithic Dome Benefits:1.GREEN BUILDINGS - MONOLITHIC DOMES</p> <p>ARE GREEN BUILDINGS THEY ARE CONSIDERED</p> <p>CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY</p> <p>AMONG THE GREENEST OF TODAYS BUILDING ALTERNATIVES. 2.SURVIVABILITY - THEY MEET OR EXCEED FEMAS STANDARDS FOR PROVIDING NEAR-ABSOLUTE PROTECTION. MONOLITHIC DOMES ARE PROVEN SURVIVORS OF TORNADOES, HURRICANES, EARTHQUAKES AND FIRES. 3. ENERGY - THE MONOLITHIC DOME IS A MICROENERGY USER. IT NEEDS A MINIMUM OF ENERGY TO MAINTAIN A COMFORTABLE INTERIOR, USUALLY ONE FOURTH OF THAT USED BY A SUPER-INSULATED METAL BUILDING OR A CONVENTIONAL HOUSE BLANKETED IN AN AIRTIGHT WRAP. 4.STRENGTH - THE MONOLITHIC DOME IS THE MOST DISASTER RESISTANT BUILDING THAT CAN BE BUILT AT A REASONABLE PRICE. A WIND OF 250 MPH (USED IN FEMA 361) PUSHES WITH A PRESSUE OF 300 POUNDS PER SQUARE FOOT. WIND SPEED OF 300 MPH IS CONSIDERED MAXIMUM FOR A TORNADO. A FORCE 5 TORNADO PUSHES WITH 4 TIMES THE PRESSUE OF A FORCE 5 HURRICANE. NO NORMAL BUILDING CAN WITHSTAND THAT MUCH PRESSURE. MANY MONOLITHIC DOMES ARE BURIED UP TO 30 FEET DEEP. THEY MUST WITHSTAND PRESSURED UP TO 1 TON PER SQUARE FOOT (2000 PSF). THE FACT IS, THE MONOLITHIC DOME IS NOT FLAT AND THEREFORE NEVER CAN MAXIMUM WIND PUSH AGAINST MORE THAN A SMALL AREA.</p> <p>10</p> <p>PRESENTED BY: SYED ARSHAD JAMAL AND AREEF AKHTAR</p> <p>5. EMP SAFETY(ELECTRO-MAGNETIC PULSE - MONOLITHIC NOW INTRODUCES</p> <p>EMP SAFETY. A MONOLITHIC DOME WITH</p> <p>CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY</p> <p>THE RIGHT COMPONENTS CAN PROTECT ITS OCCUPANTS AND/OR EQUIPMENT FROM EMP DEVASTATION. LAST BUT NOT THE LEAST : A MONOLITHIC DOMES CONSTRUCTION PROCESS SAVES BOTH MONEY AND TIME. A DOMES INTERIOR CAN BE PLANNED AND DESIGNED FOR ANY ACTIVITY OR USE AND WITH VIRTUALLY ANY THEME. THE DOMES DISASTER-RESISTANCE USUALLY MERITS LOWER INSURANCE PREMIUMS.</p> <p>FLEXIBILITY IN PLANS, FORMS &amp; USABILITY.</p> <p>11</p> <p>PRESENTED BY: SYED ARSHAD JAMAL AND AREEF AKHTAR</p> <p>Disadvantages</p> <p>CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY</p> <p>Engineering The techniques used in monolithic dome construction are very different from normal construction methods, so only specially trained construction crews are suited for building a dome using the modern techniques. The curved surfaces inherent to monolithic dome construction often result in oddly shaped rooms when divided up, which can result in wasted space in narrow corners. There are issues of wasted floor space due to wall curvature and problems fitting furniture, similar to those of Quonset huts. This effect can be minimized by constructing the dome on a stem wall, or by using an airform of such shape as to allow for straight, vertical walls at ground level. The monolithic dome's lack of seams may make it too well sealed; dehumidifiers are required in all but the driest climates. Social Social disadvantages of monolithic domes are to a large degree shared by geodesic domes, due to the similar shape and unorthodox construction. These disadvantages are: The radically different appearance of the domes also decreases the appeal for their use as private residencesthe standard circular base doesn't fit well on small lots found in many areas, and the strange appearance and design may run afoul of neighborhood building covenants. Depending on the situation, a large variety of variations available from the standard circular shape can avoid some of these problems. Building permits may be difficult to obtain if local officials are not familiar with the monolithic dome. Resale of a monolithic dome home may be difficult because of its unconventional appearance. PRESENTED BY: SYED ARSHAD JAMAL AND AREEF AKHTAR</p> <p>12</p> <p>CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY</p> <p>Step 1- Excavation</p> <p>Step 2- Foundation + placing of balloon</p> <p>Step 3- Inflating balloon</p> <p>Step 3- Inflating balloon</p> <p>Step 4- Formwork for windows</p> <p>Step 5- Rebaring</p> <p>Step 5- Rebaring 13</p> <p>Step 6- Services-Electrical &amp; Plumbing</p> <p>Step 6- ServicesElectrical &amp; Plumbing</p> <p>CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY</p> <p>Step 7- Shortcreting</p> <p>Step 8- Curing</p> <p>Step 9- Marking for interiors</p> <p>Step 10- Partition walls</p> <p>Step 11- Laying Slabs</p> <p>Step 12- Stairs 14</p> <p>Step 13- Laying fixtures</p> <p>Step 14- Interior Finishing</p> <p>CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY</p> <p>Step 15- Exterior Finishing</p> <p>In 2000, Catalytic Software began the construction of a massive, self-sustaining complex of domes, that includes attractive, safe areas for living, working and socializing. New Oroville is designed to provide all that the suburban life offers, such as parks, gardens, swimming pools, clean water and more.</p> <p>In this high-tech society, every employee will live in a one-, twoor three-story dome home that has the ability to withstand natural disasters and is equipped with lightning speed Internet access.</p> <p>15</p> <p>CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY</p> <p>New Oroville is located on 50 acres in Hyderabad, Indias high-tech hub, and includes some 4000 domes.</p> <p>New Oroville was designed for superior protection. The domes act as information silos, physically separating teams and isolating data.</p> <p>The eco-friendly domes are durable and energy efficient.</p> <p>To make the construction process more efficient, local labor crews were divided into four categories: Mixer Crew, Spray Crew, Steel Crew and Form Crew.</p> <p>16</p> <p>PRESENTED BY: SYED ARSHAD JAMAL AND AREEF AKHTAR</p> <p>CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY</p> <p>17</p> <p>PRESENTED BY: SYED ARSHAD JAMAL AND AREEF AKHTAR</p> <p>CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY</p> <p>18</p> <p>PRESENTED BY: SYED ARSHAD JAMAL AND AREEF AKHTAR</p> <p>CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY</p> <p>19</p> <p>PRESENTED BY: SYED ARSHAD JAMAL AND AREEF AKHTAR</p> <p>CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY</p> <p>20</p> <p>PRESENTED BY: SYED ARSHAD JAMAL AND AREEF AKHTAR</p> <p>CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY</p> <p>21</p> <p>PRESENTED BY: SYED ARSHAD JAMAL AND AREEF AKHTAR</p> <p>CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY</p> <p>22</p> <p>PRESE...</p>