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CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY

MONOLITHIC DOMES

01

PRESENTED BY: AHMAD FARAZ AND NILESH.M.SHANDILYA

GENERAL OVERVEIW monolithic dome (from Greek mono- and -lithic, meaning "one stone") The form may be permanent or temporary and may or may not remain part of the finished structure.

CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY

The earliest form of monolithic dome structure could be considered to be the igloo The dome-like shape of the igloo exhibits the two major advantages of a dome-shaped structure: great strength, and good insulation. The strength is due to the natural strength of the arch, and the insulation is due to the minimal surface area of a spherical section. which can withstand disasters like tsunamis, earthquakes, cyclones and floods. The physical geometry of a building affects its aerodynamic properties and how well it can withstand a storm. Geodesic dome roofs or buildings have low drag coefficients and can withstand higher wind forces than a square building of the same area. [1][2] Even stronger buildings result from monolithic dome construction. Modern construction differs significantly from the original concrete-over-dirt method. The current methods were developed by three brothers from Idaho: Barry, Randy, and David South. The first dome built using these method was constructed in Shelley, Idaho: The largest monolithic dome in the world is the home of Faith Chapel Christian Center in Birmingham, AL. It seizes the record at 72 feet (22 m) tall, and 280 feet (85 m) in diameter. Inside is a floor area of 74,500 square feet (6,920 m2) in two levels. The church was designed by Architect Rick Crandall

This domed government building inBaghdad, formerly a part of Saddam Hussein's regime, was hit by a 5,000 lb (2,300 kg). Bomb. Apart from the hole made by the entry of the bomb, it remained structurally sound.

02

PRESENTED BY: AHMAD FARAZ AND NILESH.M.SHANDILYA

1. INTRODUCTION MONOLITHIC IS DEDICATED TO IMPROVING PEOPLES LIVES WORLDWIDE BY INTRODUCING AND

CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY 03

CONSTRUCTING MONOLITHIC DOMES, FOR PERSONAL AND PUBLIC USE, THAT ARE DISASTER-RESISTANT, ENERGY-EFFICIENT AND COST-EFFECTIVE. THEY ARE COST-EFFICIENT, EARTH-FRIENDLY, EXTREMELY DURABLE AND EASILY MAINTAINED. MOST IMPORTANTLY, A MONOLITHIC DOME USES ABOUT 50% LESS ENERGY FOR HEATING AND COOLING THAN A SAME-SIZE, CONVENTIONALLY CONSTRUCTED BUILDING. MONOLITHIC DOMES MEET FEMA STANDARDS FOR PROVIDING NEAR-ABSOLUTE PROTECTION AND HAVE A PROVEN ABILITY TO SURVIVE TORNADOES, HURRICANES, EARTHQUAKES, MOST MANMADE DISASTERS, FIRE, TERMITES AND ROT.

MONOLITHIC DOMES ARE NEITHER RESTRICTED BY CLIMATE NOR BY SITE LOCATION. IN TERMS OF ENERGY

CONSUMPTION, DURABILITY, DISASTER RESISTANCE AND MAINTENANCE, MONOLITHIC DOMES PERFORM WELL IN ANY CLIMATE, EVEN EXTREMELY HOT OR COLD ONES. AND THEY CAN BE CONSTRUCTED ON VIRTUALLY ANY SITE: IN THE MOUNTAINS, ON BEACHES, EVEN UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER. MANY SCHOOLS NOW CONDUCT THEIR CLASSES IN MONOLITHIC DOMES. SOME ARE DESIGNATED AS TORNADO SHELTERS. OTHERS HAVE MONOLITHIC DOME GYMNASIUMS, AUDITORIUMS, MULTIPURPOSE CENTERS, LIBRARIES, ETC. FEMA : FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCYS

PRESENTED BY: SYED ARSHAD JAMAL AND AREEF AKHTAR

2.CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUECONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY MONOLITHIC DOMES ARE CONSTRUCTED FOLLOWING A METHOD THAT REQUIRES A TOUGH, INFLATABLE AIRFORM, STEEL-REINFORCED CONCRETE AND A POLYURETHANE FOAM INSULATION. EACH OF THESE INGREDIENTS IS USED IN A TECHNOLOGICALLY SPECIFIC WAY. AIRFORM : THE MONOLITHIC AIRFORM IS A BALLOONLIKE, INFLATABLE STRUCTURE THAT DETERMINES THE SHAPE AND SIZE OF A DOME. ITS MADE OF PVC-COATED NYLON OR POLYESTER FABRIC, AVAILABLE IN SEVERAL WEIGHTS AND A RAINBOW OF COLORS. EACH MONOLITHIC AIRFORM IS DESIGNED FOR A SPECIFIC PROJECT AND MANUFACTURED IN BRUCO, A 240 60 FACTORY EQUIPPED WITH

STATE-OF-THE-ART MACHINERY.STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE : 1. FOUNDATION 2. AIRFORM 3. POLYURETHANE FOAM

4. STEEL REBAR5. SHOTCRETE

04

PRESENTED BY: SYED ARSHAD JAMAL AND AREEF AKHTAR

STEP 1 - FOUNDATION : THE MONOLITHIC DOME STARTS AS A

CONCRETE RING FOUNDATION, REINFORCED WITH STEEL

CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY

REBAR. VERTICAL STEEL BARS EMBEDDED IN THE RING ATTACHED TO THE STEEL REINFORCING OF THE DOME ITSELF. SMALL DOMES MAY USE AN INTEGRATED FLOOR/RING FOUNDATION. OTHERWISE, THE FLOOR IS POURED AFTER COMPLETION OF THE DOME. defining the shape of the base of the structure.

STEP 2 -

AN AIRFORM FABRICATED TO THE PROPER

SHAPE AND SIZE IS PLACED ON THE RING BASE. USING

BLOWER FANS, IT IS INFLATED AND THE AIRFORMCREATES THE SHAPE OF THE STRUCTURE TO BE COMPLETED. THE FANS RUN THROUGHOUT CONSTRUCTION OF THE DOME. The air form contains an airlock to allow workers to enter the form while it is inflated. THE AIRFORM IS A HIGHLY ENGINEERED FABRIC STRUCTURE THAT SHOULD BE HANDLED WITH GREAT CARE. MANY FACTORS ENTER INTO ITS ATTACHMENT TO THE CONCRETE FOUNDATION. MAKE SURE THE REBAR IS BENT OVER THE FOOTING TO

05

AVOID TEARING THE AIRFORM DURING INFLATION. PRESENTED BY: SYED ARSHAD JAMAL AND AREEF AKHTAR

LAYING IT OUT :

CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY

THE ENTIRE CIRCUMFERENCE OF THE FOUNDATION MAY BE COVERED BEFORE ANY CLAMP STRAPS ARE BOLTED ON. THIS IS TO PERMIT ANY NECESSARY ADJUSTMENT OF THE ALIGNMENT OF THE AIRFORM TO THE FOUNDATION. BE SURE YOU ATTACH THE AIRFORM ON ONE SIDE, THEN ITS OPPOSITE. THEN ATTACH THE QUARTER POINTS, AND THEIR OPPOSITES AND CONTINUE EVENLY ALL THE WAY AROUND. THE AIRFORM WILL STRETCH TO FIT THE FOUNDATION IF YOU MEET THE INDIVIDUAL POINTS.

THE CLAMP STRAPS ARE PLACED ABOVE THE ROPE ANDSECURED BY THE CONCRETE BOLTS AND SCREWS. SPACING OF THE FASTENERS SHOULD BE 6" TO 24" ON CENTER DEPENDING ON PRESSURE AND TYPE OF FASTENER USED. THE AIRLOCK IS THEN ATTACHED TO THE APPROPRIATE OPENING. INFLATE IN AS LITTLE WIND AS POSSIBLE AND AS RAPIDLY AS MAKES SENSE. INSPECT THE PERIMETER AS THE INFLATION PROGRESSES. WATCH FOR HANG-UPS OF THE AIRFORM.

06

PRESENTED BY: SYED ARSHAD JAMAL AND AREEF AKHTAR

STEP 3 POLYURETHANE FOAM IS APPLIED TO THE INTERIOR SURFACE OF THE

c : CHOOSE A FOAM FOAM COMES IN SEVERAL SET

TIMES AND IS AVAILABLE FOR COLD ORWARM WEATHER. THE SPEED OF FOAM USED DEPENDS ON THE SEASON AND CLIMATE. d : FOAM APPLICATION SEAL BOTTOM OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE OF THE AIRFORM WITH FOAM. DO NOT COVER REBAR IN THE KEYWAY OR SPRAY FOAM IN THE KEYWAY. SPRAY FOAM EVENLY TO 1/2-INCH THICKNESS ON ENTIRE INTERIOR AIRFORM SURFACE. THE FOAM WILL DRY TO THE TOUCH IN THREE TO FOUR SECONDS. e : TEST THICKNESS SPRAY ANOTHER 1/2- TO 3/4-INCH LAYER OF FOAM,

CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY

AIRFORM. APPROXIMATELY THREE INCHES OF FOAM IS APPLIED. THE FOAM IS ALSO THE BASE FOR ATTACHING THE STEEL

REINFORCING REBAR.(Its purposes are to give rigidity to the air form, secure the rebar in place, provide support for spraying in the concrete mixture, and insulate the final structure.) a: COVER AND PROTECT COVER THE REBAR, EQUIPMENT AND FLOOR WITH PLASTIC TO PROTECT FROM FOAM AND SHOTCRETE OVERSPRAY. b: PRIME! IF YOU WANT SOMETHING TO STICK TO THE AIRFORM, YOU NEED TO USE A PRIMER! A THIN LAYER IS ALL THAT IS

MAKING THE TOTAL THICKNESS, AT THIS POINT,AN INCH AND A QUARTER.

NEEDED (300-400 SQ. FT. PER GALLON). LETTHE PRIMER DRY COMPLETELY BEFORE APPLYING FOAM.

07

PRESENTED BY: SYED ARSHAD JAMAL AND AREEF AKHTAR

STEP 4 :STEEL REINFORCING REBAR IS ATTACHED TO THE FOAM USING A SPECIALLY ENGINEERED LAYOUT OF

CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY

HOOP (HORIZONTAL) AND VERTICAL STEEL REBAR. SMALL DOMES NEED SMALL DIAMETER BARS WITH WIDE SPACING. LARGE DOMES REQUIRE LARGER BARS WITH CLOSER SPACING.

STEP 5 :SHOTCRETE A SPECIAL SPRAY MIX OF CONCRETE IS APPLIED TO THE INTERIOR SURFACE OF THE DOME. THE STEEL REBAR IS EMBEDDED IN THE CONCRETE AND WHEN ABOUT THREE INCHES OF SHOTCRETE IS APPLIED, THE MONOLITHIC DOME IS FINISHED. THE BLOWER FANS ARE SHUT OFF AFTER THE CONCRETE IS SET.

08

PRESENTED BY: SYED ARSHAD JAMAL AND AREEF AKHTAR

SHOTCRETING MIX COMPOSITION : FOR STRENGTH THIS IS FOR A SEVEN SACK MIX USED FOR SHOTCRETE

FOR MAXIMUM STRENGTH UTILIZING KEL-CRETE AS

CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY

AND ADMIXTURE. THIS MIX DESIGN IS FOR 3/10S OF A CUBIC YARD USING TWO SACKS OF CEMENT. IT IS FORMULATED ESPECIALLY FOR THE MONOLITHIC PORTABLE CONCRETE MIXER, BUT WILL WORK WELL IN MOST 9 CUBIC FOOT MIXERS.

CEMENT 188 LBS TWO SACKS OF STANDARD TYPE IOR II OR I-II PORTLAND CEMENT. THIS IS WHAT THE LUMBER YARD WILL CARRY. IT IS NOT MORTAR MIX.

WATER ABOUT 80 LBS (10 GALLONS) WATER MUSTBE CLEAN (POTABLE). THIS WILL VARY FROM JOB TO JOB AND MUST BE ADJUSTED. THE WATER IN THE AGGREGATE WILL CAUSE A DIFFERENCE IN THE AMOUNT OF WATER NEEDED. ADJUST TO A PROPER SLUMP. 2" TO 6" AS NEEDED.

CONCRETE SAND 690 LBS (TEN, 5 GALLONBUCKETS IS A GOOD APPROXIMATE MEASURE).

PEA ROCK 140 LBS (TWO, 5 GALLON BUCKETS.) THEAMOUNT OF PEA ROCK IS ADJUSTED PER GRADATION OF THE SAND. IF THE SAND IS HIGH IN LARGER AGGREGATE THE PEA ROCK MAY BE LEFT OUT. IF IT IS LOW, THEN MORE MAY BE NEEDED.

DUE TO PEAROCKS : IN A FREEZING EXPOSURE, A GOOD ENTRAINED AIR VOID SYSTEM IS A MUST, AND THE MIXTURE DEVELOPS 3500-PSI COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH BEFORE THE FIRST WINTER

09

PRESENTED BY: SYED ARSHAD JAMAL AND AREEF AKHTAR

Monolithic Dome Benefits:1.GREEN BUILDINGS - MONOLITHIC DOMES

ARE GREEN BUILDINGS THEY ARE CONSIDERED

CONTEMPORARY TECHNOLOGY

AMONG THE GREENEST OF TODAYS BUILDING ALTERNATIVES. 2.SURVIVABILITY - THEY MEET OR EXCEED FEMAS STANDARDS FOR PROVIDING NEAR-ABSOLUTE PROTECTION. MONOLITHIC DOMES ARE PROVEN SURVIVORS OF TORNADOES, HURRICANES, EARTHQUAKES AND FIRE

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