Money and Banking (Finance)

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<ul><li><p>7/27/2019 Money and Banking (Finance)</p><p> 1/9</p><p>1Dr. Savvas C Savvides-- School of Business, EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY CYPRUS</p><p>PRINCIPLES OF MACROECONOMICS</p><p>Overview</p><p>Beginning with this chapter we develop the financial side of the economy. Students will develop anunderstanding of what money is and what forms money takes. An understanding of money is importantbecause the quantity of money affects inflation and interest rates in the long run, and production andemployment in the short run. First we describe what money looks like, its functions and attributes (in case itis a while since you have seen any up close!?). We then look at the role of banks in creating money, thequestion of the money multiplier and money supply, and how the central bank controls the quantity ofmoney. We briefly examine the different measures of money, and the role of the commercial banks. Finallywe begin to examine motives for holding money, and look at how money demand depends on output, pricesand interest rates.</p><p>Learning Objectives</p><p>By the end of this chapter, students should understand:</p><p> what money is and what functions money has in the economy.</p><p> the role and functions of Central Banks</p><p> how the banking system helps determine the supply of money.</p><p> what tools Central Banks uses to alter the supply of money.</p><p>Key Points</p><p>1. The term money refers to assets that people regularly use to buy goods and services.</p><p>2. Money serves three functions. As a medium of exchange, it provides the item used to maketransactions. As a unit of account, it provides the way in which prices and other economic values arerecorded. As a store of value, it provides a way of transferring purchasing power from the present to the</p><p>future.</p><p>3. Commodity money, such as gold, is money that has intrinsic value: It would be valued even if it were notused as money. Fiat money, such as paper dollars, is money without intrinsic value: It would beworthless if it were not used as money.</p><p>4. Money takes the form of currency and various types of bank deposits, such as checking accounts.</p><p>5. Central banks are responsible for regulating the monetary system of their countries.</p><p>6. Central banks control the money supply primarily through open-market operations. The purchase ofgovernment bonds increases the money supply, and the sale of government bonds decreases themoney supply. Central banks can also expand the money supply by lowering reserve requirements or</p><p>decreasing the discount rate, and it can contract the money supply by raising reserve requirements orincreasing the discount rate.</p><p>Chapter 29</p><p>Money and Banking</p></li><li><p>7/27/2019 Money and Banking (Finance)</p><p> 2/9</p><p>2Dr. Savvas C Savvides-- School of Business, EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY CYPRUS</p><p>7. When banks loan out some of their deposits, they increase the quantity of money in the economy.</p><p>Money and its Functions</p><p>Money is defined as the medium through which people exchange goods and services. Money is the set ofassets in an economy that people regularly use to buy goods and services from other people. It canbe any generally accepted means of payment for the delivery of goods or settlement of debt. In the absence</p><p>of money, goods must be exchanged for each other in a barter system. In addition to its role as means ofexchange, money also serves as a unit of account, and a store of value.</p><p>The three functions of money:</p><p>a. A medium of exchange: money is given by buyers to sellers when they want to purchasegoods and services.</p><p>b. A unit of account: money is used by people as a yardstick to post prices and record debts.c. A store of value: money is used by people to transfer purchasing power from the present to</p><p>the future.</p><p>One of the key characteristics of money is that it is a liquid asset. Liquidity is the ease with which an asset</p><p>can be converted into the economys medium of exchange. Money is the most liquid asset available. Otherassets (such as stocks, bonds, and real estate) vary in their liquidity. When people decide in what forms tohold their wealth, they have to balance the liquidity of each possible asset against the assets usefulness asa store of value.</p><p>Historically there have been different types of money commodity money (gold, cigarettes etc) which alsohave an intrinsic value on their own due to alternative uses. In modern times we use token money such asbanknotes, whose value as money greatly exceeds any intrinsic value it may otherwise have. Finallysupplementing token money we have IOU money such as bank deposits, which the bank is obliged to paythe beneficiary when he/she presents a cheque.</p><p>Different measures of moneyThe quantity of money circulating in Cyprus (and any other economy) is called the money stock or themoney supply. Included in the measure of the money stock are currency, demand deposits and othermonetary assets.</p><p>Why do we limit the money supply to cash in circulation outside banksplus bank deposits? Measuring whatwe define as money has changed over time and has been made more complex by changes in severalfields.Firstly, the distinction between banks and savings and loan associations (or building societies, orcooperative banks) is no longer clear. Secondly, we have seen increasing convergence of accounts such assight deposit and time deposit ones. Given the wide spectrum of liquidity, there is no good place to draw aline. For simplicity we therefore follow the current norm and choose to concentrate on narrow money (themonetary base M1) and broad money M2.</p><p>Money Supply is defined as the value of the stock of the medium of exchange (money) in circulation.</p><p>Currency: the paper bills and coins in the hands of the public.</p><p>Demand deposits: balances in bank accounts that depositors can access on demand by writing a check.</p><p>The following table shows a number of key monetary aggregates for Cyprus such as two different measures</p><p>of the money supply, deposits, loans and different interest rates.</p><p>Money and Banking Statistics for Cyprus, 2001-2006</p><p>Dec-01 Dec-02 Dec-03 Dec-04 Dec-05 Dec-06</p><p>Money supply</p><p>Money supply M1 1012.41 1038.76 1377.10 1523.51 1804.89 2263.74</p></li><li><p>7/27/2019 Money and Banking (Finance)</p><p> 3/9</p><p>3Dr. Savvas C Savvides-- School of Business, EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY CYPRUS</p><p>Money supply M2 7402.63 8165.17 8494.15 8971.56 9884.93 11352.80</p><p>Credit and deposits</p><p>Loans to residents 9435.7410312.37</p><p>11035.77</p><p>11576.99 12401.79 14016.57</p><p>Residents' deposits 7677.71 8441.09 8852.42 9396.61 10236.36 11452.97</p><p>Interest rates</p><p>Overnight deposit facility rate 2.50 2.50 2.50 3.50 2.25 2.50</p><p>Marginal lending facility rate 5.50 5.00 4.50 5.50 4.25 4.50</p><p>Money market interest rates (monthly average)</p><p>Interbank offer rate (overnight) 4.02 3.64 3.42 4.69 2.86 3.31</p><p>Retail Bank Interest rates</p><p>Deposit rates</p><p>3 month notice - over CYP5000 4.00 3.80 3.35 4.44 3.47 3.65</p><p>Lending rates</p><p>Enterprises - secured loans 7.12 6.88 6.90 7.92 6.68 6.80</p><p>Personal secured loans 7.95 7.52 7.53 8.55 7.28 7.48Credit cards 9.00 10.33 10.50 11.50 12.00 12.17</p><p>Source: Central Bank of Cyprus. Available online at:</p><p>In Cyprus currency accounts for less than 30 percent of the value of M1, with the remaining 70+ percentbeing in the form of checking accounts (demand deposits). Thus, the majority of the money in the economyis actually made up of account balances rather than currency in circulation or in the vaults of banks and thecentral bank. Note additionally that the assets included in M1 and M2 differ in terms of their liquidity. .</p><p>The Central Bank of CyprusJust like in any economy, at the apex of the banking system in Cyprus is the Central Bank of Cyprus (CBC).</p><p>One of its key functions is the regulation of banks to ensure the health of the nations banking system. TheCentral Bank of Cyprus monitors each bank's financial condition and facilitates bank transactions by clearingchecks, and if needed makes loans to banks when they want (or need) to borrow.</p><p>The second job of the CBC is to control the quantity of money available in the economy. The primary way inwhich the central bank increases or decreases the supply of money is through open market operations(which involve the purchase or sale of government bonds).</p><p>a. If the CBC wants to increase the supply of money, it creates dollars and uses them to purchasegovernment bonds from the public through the nation's bond markets.</p><p>b. If the CBC wants to lower the supply of money, it sells government bonds from its portfolio to thepublic. Money is then taken out of the hands of the public and the supply of money falls.</p><p>Modern Banking</p><p>Banks are used to smooth the process of bringing the lender and the saver together - they are financialintermediaries. In addition, they can use the money deposited by lenders to further increase the moneysupply.</p><p>Bank reserves: the money available in banks to meet possible withdrawals by depositors.Reserve ratio: the ratio of reserves to deposits.</p><p>Banks lend a portion of their deposits as overdrafts, some is used to buy securities such as long termgovernment bonds. Some is invested in more liquid assets, allowing banks to recover their money quickly ifpeople withdraw a lot of money from their sight deposits. Finally some money is held as cash.</p></li><li><p>7/27/2019 Money and Banking (Finance)</p><p> 4/9</p><p>4Dr. Savvas C Savvides-- School of Business, EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY CYPRUS</p><p>Some of the deposits can be withdrawn by customers on sight (demand). Sight (or demand) deposits arethose from which money can be withdrawn at short notice. Time deposits however, paying higher rates ofinterest, require more notice for withdrawal.</p><p>How Banks Create Money</p><p>Example 1:</p><p>The Money Creation Process</p><p>Assume that the Central Bank of Cyprus buys from an individual a bond worth 10,000. The individualdeposits the 10,000 in his checking account with his bank (Bank A). Assume that the legal reserve ratio is20%. Bank A must keep 20% (or 2,000) on reserve (in its vaults or as deposit with the central bank) andcan lend 80% or 8,000. The borrower buys a car, and the car dealer deposits the 8,000 in his checkingaccount (say with Bank B). Bank B can lend 80% (or 6,400) and keep 1,600 on reserve. Assume that theborrower from Bank B pays his tuition at European University Cyprus. The University deposits the proceedsto its bank account, say Bank C. Bank C now has to keep 20% (or 1,280) as legal reserves and can lendout 5,120, and the process goes on and on as shown in the schematic below:</p><p>The Money Creation Process</p><p>If we add all the additions to the money supply made at each stage, which are the amounts of additionaldemand deposits represented above by the gray boxes (i.e., at Bank A, Bank B, Bank C, etc), we will seethat the money supply will increase by 50,000.</p><p>Example 2:</p><p>Lets assume that banks are required by the central bank to maintain a reserve ratio of 10 percent.</p><p>Buys 10,000Bond in the</p><p>Open Market</p><p>Reserves 2,000Loans 8,000</p><p>Reserves 1,600Loans 6,400</p><p>Keeps Reserves of 1,280Makes loans of 5,120</p><p>And so on, and so on </p><p>CENTRALBANK OFCYPRUS</p><p>BANK BCar dealersDeposit a/c</p><p>+ 8,000</p><p>BANK CUniversitysDeposit a/c</p><p>+ 6,400</p><p>BANK AIndividualsDeposit a/c</p><p>+ 10,000</p></li><li><p>7/27/2019 Money and Banking (Finance)</p><p> 5/9</p><p>5Dr. Savvas C Savvides-- School of Business, EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY CYPRUS</p><p>Stage One: To start the process of money creation, assume that we have an individual who wins</p><p>1,000 in the lottery and decides to deposit the cheque of 1000 into his bank (Bank A) account. At</p><p>this point, the private sector (represented by our lucky devil (!?) has additional assets of 1,000,</p><p>while banks have additional liabilities of 1,000 in the form of the deposits.</p><p> The addition to money supply (in the form of new deposit): 1,000.</p><p>Stage Two: The profit maximizing Bank A decides to lend 900 of the new deposits to a car dealer,</p><p>keeping 100 (or 10%) in the form of liquid reserves as required by the central bank. The car dealer</p><p>pays the mechanic who deposits his check to his bank (Bank B).</p><p> Additional money supply: 900</p><p>Stage Three: Bank B lends out 90% of the new deposit, or 810, lets say to a student to pay her</p><p>tuition at Cyprus College. The College deposits the cheque of 810 in the bank (Bank C).</p><p> Additional money supply: 810</p><p>Stage Four: Bank C lends out 90% of this new deposit (or 729) to a bakery to pay his baker,</p><p>keeping the required 10% (or 81) in liquid form. The baker in turn deposits his cheque in his bank</p><p>account at Bank D.</p><p> Additional money supply: 729.</p><p>And so on, and so on ..</p><p>The above process continues until the last bank has no free reserves to lend out.</p><p>If we add all the additions to money supply at each stage, we would find that the total change in the money</p><p>supply at the end would be 10,000.</p><p>The Money-Creation Process</p><p>The central bank injects (reduces) currency or demand deposit (checking account) money into the economy</p><p>when it buys (sells) government securities on the open market. Buying securities means that the central</p><p>bank exchanges paper certificates held by the public (individuals, firms, banks) for money. This is done by</p><p>crediting the reserve account that the sellers bank maintains with the central bank. Therefore, the money</p><p>supply is increased as people now hold (and can spend) more money (currency and demand deposits).</p><p>The final impact on the money supply is a multiple of this initial injection of reserves in the banking system</p><p>because of the working of the money (or credit)multiplier, which is facilitated by the ability of banks to lend</p><p>out part of these initial extra reserves, after meeting their legal reserve requirements. With the loans they</p><p>receive from banks, the borrowing parties would presumably pay wages, pay suppliers for raw materials, etc.</p><p>These people in turn would deposit the money they receive in their checking accounts at the banks, and</p><p>another round of lending by banks begins. This is what we refer to as the money creation process.</p><p>When M1 is measured, and the central bank totals the checking account balances in the entire banking</p><p>system, the original $10,000 injection of free reserves (in the form of the bond sellers deposit) will have</p><p>created a total of $50,000 in deposits in the total banking system. Therefore, we see that with a 20% reserve</p><p>requirement, the original deposit was multiplied by a factor of 5. Economists have determined that the valueof the money multiplier can be expressed as the inverse of the required reserve ratio (RR) which is the</p></li><li><p>7/27/2019 Money and Banking (Finance)</p><p> 6/9</p><p>6Dr. Savvas C Savvides-- School of Business, EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY CYPRUS</p><p>percentage that commercial banks are required to hold as liquid reserves (in their vaults or as deposits at the</p><p>central bank). This is referred to as the fractional reserve banking system.</p><p>Thus,</p><p>Money (or credit) mult iplier: m = 1 / RR</p><p>The higher the reserve ratio the fewer loans banks would be able to make, and therefore the multiplier</p><p>process would be smaller. In the above example, if the reserve requirement had been 10%, the original</p><p>injection of reserves of $10,000 by the central bank would have become $100,000 (a factor of 10 times).</p><p>From the two examples above, we can...</p></li></ul>