monasticism,scholasticism,chivalry and the guild system

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2. MONASTICISM AND RELIGIOUS DISCIPLINE Notable People: * St. Patrick founded the first Monasticism in Ireland between AD 432 and 461 * St. Anthony founder of Christian monasticism (Father of Monasticism) 3. Monasticism - a special form of religious community life - people separate themselves from ordinary ways of living - based on Jesus passage "be perfect, therefore, as your heavenly Father is perfect" Matthew 5:48 Etymology: from the Greek word monos meaning alone. It is sometimes called monaschism literally means dwelling alone. 4. men who adopt a monastic life are called monks while women are called nuns and live in a convent 5. The three evangelical counsels or state of perfection: poverty (perfect charity) chastity obedience Medieval monastic life consisted of prayer, reading, and manual labor. 6. Aims of Monastic EducationAims of Monastic Education Spiritual - to save individual souls Moral - to attain the ideals of poverty, chastity, and obedience Spiritual Knowledge - to attain the highest spiritual knowledge and to achieve spiritual perfection Virtue - world renunciation 7. Agencies of Education * Monasteries TheMonastery of Saint Anthonyin Egypt, built over his tomb 8. Saint Catherine's Monastery - one of the oldest working Christian monasteries in the world 9. * monastic schools - under Charlemagne in the 18th and 19th centuries 10. - the seven liberal arts was its curriculum- the seven liberal arts was its curriculum a.a. TheTriviumTheTrivium (tres viae, three roads)(tres viae, three roads) * Grammar languages and literature* Grammar languages and literature * Dialectic logic or right reasoning* Dialectic logic or right reasoning * Rhetoric law and composition* Rhetoric law and composition b.b. The QuadriviumThe Quadrivium (quattor viae, four roads)(quattor viae, four roads) * Geometry geometry, geography, and natural* Geometry geometry, geography, and natural historyhistory * Arithmetic numbers and the study of the calendar* Arithmetic numbers and the study of the calendar * Music plain chant and harmony used in church* Music plain chant and harmony used in church * Astronomy the heavenly bodies, chemistry and* Astronomy the heavenly bodies, chemistry and physicsphysics 11. Types of EducationTypes of Education Moral and Religious Training Literary Education Manual Training Three Aspects of Social Organizations Monasticism renounced completely the three aspects of social organizations: The Domestic Home The Economic Structure The Political State 12. Methods of InstructionsMethods of Instructions Catechetical Method Dictation Memorization Language Discipline Meditation and Contemplation/ Thoughtful Reflection 13. Outstanding Contributions to EducationOutstanding Contributions to Education Preserving and spreading learning and culture by the Christian Monasteries The monasteries opposed the vices and corruption of the medieval world. They were an influence in taming the warlike spirits and refining the rustic customs of the Teutonic people. Dignity of Labor 14. Scholasticism was a general designation for the particular methods and tendencies to rationalize the doctrines of Christian Church. 15. WHAT IS SCHOLASTICISM? Aristotle had used logic to try to prove the existence of God. -the revised beliefs and logical methods of discussion were termed scholasticism. 16. - Father of Scholasticism 17. MAJOR SCHOLASTICS OF 12TH CENTURY 18. MAJOR SCHOLASTICS OF 12TH CENTURY 19. AIMS OF EDUCATION Intellectual Discipline - by rational argument Faith by Reason - by reason That the will of man wills or chooses from necessity That the world is eternal That the soul is corrupted when the body is corrupted That the mans actions are not ruled by the divine providence. 20. AGENCIES OF EDUCATION Parish Schools 21. MONASTIC AND CATHEDRAL 22. Palace School 23. University 24. THE BIRTH OF UNIVERSITY 25. Scholastic Realists Conceptualists 26. VARIOUS KINDS OF SCHOLARLY TREATISES Disputed Questions Disputed Questions on Truth Summae Methods of Instructions Argumentative Method 1. Starting a proposition, thesis, or questions; 2. Setting down objections to the proposition: 3. Proving one side, and 4. Answering or disputing objections in order. Lecture, Repetition, Disputation, and Examination Methods Aristotelian Logic 27. THE ARISTOTELIAN LOGIC 1. a MAJOR PREMISE 2. a MINOR PREMISE 3. Conclusions Other requisites 1.The subject must ALL INCLUSIVE 2. The predicate must be the subject of the MAJOR PREMISE Organization of the University Emphasis on the Intellectual Training All men are mortal All Greeks are men >All Greeks are mortal 28. -The general term to describe the political and military system of Western Europe. -no central government - little security -fulfilled the basic need for justice and protection -has a system of land tenure on allegiance and service to the nobleman or lord. 29. - Owned the land, called a fief, let it out to a subordinate who called a vassal. Two careers for the son of noblemen: Clergy -If they decided in favor of the church, they pursed an education that was religious and academic in nature. -an education that was physical, social, military, in nature. -more appeal than the church Chivalry 30. Chivalry- comes from the Old French word chevalerie, meaning horse soldiery. - The term came to mean the code of behavior and ethics that knights were expected to follow. 31. Aims of Chivalric Education Morality -to inculcate in the minds of the young nobles the virtues of honor, bravery, courtesy etc. Responsibility -to get the young nobles to assume their responsibilities, how to manage their own estates, and how to deal with the lower class of people. Horsemanship -to train the young nobles in horseback warfare, hunting, and tournaments. Gallantry -to train the young nobles how to deal gallantry with the ladies of the nobility and to protect the weak. 32. Religiosity -t train the young nobles to be devoted to the service of God. Social Graces -to train the young girls in the social graces and manner fit for the ladies. 33. Agencies of Education and Content Studied Home -was for the young boys and girls. Court-the court was for the girl The Castle- these were for the boys Troubadours, Minnesingers, and Minstrel -using the vernacular, they sang about the noble deeds of heroes, beautiful ladies, brilliant deeds of knights and lords. They spread news, gave warnings about impending dangers, brought messages from allies and friends. Troubadours propagated learning through their songs. 34. The following are the contents studied by the pupils: Religion, music, dancing, especially for girls Horse riding for warfare, hunting, and tournaments Physical exercises Reading, writing, literature in vernacular Good manners, right conduct, social graces & etiquette Household duties such as sewing, weaving, cooking, and embroidery for girls At higher level: the curriculum consisted of the Seven Free Arts: Jousting Falconing Swimming Horsemanship Boxing Writing and singing verse Chess The pupil did not pay any fees because he served his master like a valet 35. Jousting - Generic term in the Middle Ages to refer to many kinds of martial games. (contact sport) 36. Falconing Hunting in the Middle Ages Were enjoyed by the nobles of the time. Also called as sport of kings 37. Methods of Instruction Observation, Imitation and Practice The young noble observed, imitated, and practiced what was to be learned. Training was individual. Apprenticeship A young noble was assigned to a lord to learn all were to be learned. Motivation These were done by means of high social ideals, social standards, and social approval. 38. Training Preparation for Knighthood Knighthood grew up as part of the feudal system -became less important in warfare by the 1400s because of the changing military tactics and the introduction of gunpowder In Middle Ages, a young boy in training to be a knight spent the first years of his life in the: Care of the women of his family Learned to a ride a pony and care for horses 39. THE PAGE At 7 (left home and assigned to a female teacher) Joined the household of another knight or a nobleman Learned to handle small weapons Learned the code of courtesy and behavior expected of night 40. THE SQUIRE At 14 (assigned to a knight) Acted as valet (a personal servant to the knight who was his master) Set the table and served meals Keeping the knights weapon in good condition Caring for his horses Helping him with his armor Attending to his injuries Guarding his prisoners Rode with his master into a battle and took part in the fight 41. THE KNIGHT At 21, any knight could bestow knighthood on another Some men were knighted on the battlefield if they had shown great bravery The knight received his sword and another weapons from his master or king, or from members of the kings court This ceremony was solemn and memorable The prospective knight too a bath of purification, dressed in white Spent an entire night in meditation and prayer The squire knelt before the parrain, or the man who was knighting him. The parrain struck the squire on the back of the neck with the palm of his hand. Later a tap with a sword replaced the blow with the hand. This tap (a ceremony) was called the accolade from the French word col, meaning neck. I dub you knight. Those words completed the ceremony in which a squire became knight 42. The Decline of Feudalism By the 1200s, several events in Europe led to the decline of feudalism. An economic revival put more