Modular kitchen component design

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<ul><li><p>This article was downloaded by: [University of Glasgow]On: 04 October 2014, At: 14:58Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK</p><p>Batiment International, Building Research and PracticePublication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rbri19</p><p>Modular kitchen component designKlaus BlachPublished online: 08 May 2007.</p><p>To cite this article: Klaus Blach (1987) Modular kitchen component design, Batiment International, Building Research and Practice, 15:1-6, 157-162</p><p>To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09613218708726808</p><p>PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE</p><p>Taylor &amp; Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the Content) contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor &amp; Francis, our agents, and our licensors make no representations orwarranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, and are not the views of orendorsed by Taylor &amp; Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sources of information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims,proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arising out of the use of the Content.</p><p>This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone isexpressly forbidden. Terms &amp; Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p><p>http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rbri19http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09613218708726808http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p></li><li><p>CI/SfB (73.1)X{F43) UDC 721.057</p><p>MODULAR KITCHENCOMPONENT DESIGN</p><p>Klaus Blach</p><p>T his article from the Danish Building ResearchInstitute illustrates ways in which accurate modularkitchen units can be integrated into modular spacesbuilt to less exacting tolerances.The article, specially prepared for the Journal, is based on apaper by Klaus Blach and Rebeca Poblete Geraghty onbuilt-in furniture, originally presented at a plenary meetingof CIB W24, The International Modular Group.</p><p>C et article du Building Research Institute danoisillustre les faons d'intgrer des modules prcis decuisine dans des espaces modulaires construitsselon des tolrances moins exigeantes.Il a t crit spcialement notre intention d'aprs unecommunication de Klaus Blach et Rebeca PobleteGeraghty sur le mobilier intgr, prsente une runionplnire de la W 24 - Groupe modulaire International.</p><p>There is a vast difference in the way modular kitchen componentdesign is approached in different projects. In some cases a ratherstrict modular discipline is followed, for instance determining thatmodular kitchen components will always stay within their modularspace and will therefore fit modular room dimensions. In othercases it is found to be enough if a project can be executed withmodular components without too slavish an adherence totheoretical modular design rules.</p><p>In the following it will be shown that it is quite feasible to integratevery accurate modular kitchen components with a modularcarcass made to less exacting tolerances. It is shown howrequirements - for instance that it should be possible to opencupboard doors, to draw out shelves and drawers and to designre-entrant corners properly - will lead to assembly details whichcan easily accommodate the dimensional deviations stemmingfrom the building carcass.</p><p>ROOM AND FURNITURE DIMENSIONS</p><p>Furniture components will as a rule tolerate no or only slightmodification during the assembly, as the component parts arerelatively thin and usually delivered with finished surfaces. It istherefore important that room dimensions should be plannedsufficiently spacious in order to take the furniture components.</p><p>In practice room dimensions may show dimensional deviations of25 mm as against a few mm only for a row of cupboardcomponents. From this can be deduced why modular roomdimensions in many cases will be of no use. A conflict would becreated whenever it was attempted to fit a row of cupboards with acertain modular length into a room with a corresponding modularroom dimension. The actual room dimensions would, because ofdimensional deviations caused during construction, in somecases be too small to allow positioning of the cupboardcomponents (fig. 1).</p><p>One simple way to avoid this conflict will be to arrange layouts insuch a way that rows of kitchen components have one free end,where no accuracy is required. Another way to avoid conflicts is to</p><p>i.a</p><p>Dimensional dev.e.g. 2 5 mm</p><p>i</p><p>4</p><p>Dim. dev. e.g. 4 mm</p><p>Fig. 1.</p><p>157</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f G</p><p>lasg</p><p>ow] </p><p>at 1</p><p>4:58</p><p> 04 </p><p>Oct</p><p>ober</p><p> 201</p><p>4 </p></li><li><p>y</p><p>Conflict</p><p>No conflict</p><p>nxM</p><p>00</p><p>(a)</p><p>Fig. 2.</p><p>Reducec</p><p>- &gt;</p><p>No conflict</p><p>i c or flict</p><p>&lt; ;</p><p>&lt; ^/ \</p><p>Fig. 3.</p><p>have sufficiently wide joints between the ends of rows of kitchencomponents and the adjoining walls (figs 2 and 3).</p><p>As an easy rule of thumb early sketches could already be basedon this approach: where a row of cupboards is to be placedbetween walls, the room dimension should allow for at least 50 mmof free space at each end of the row.</p><p>DESIGN PRINCIPLES</p><p>ISO 3055, 'Kitchen equipment-co-ordinating sizes', assumes thatthe thickness of the door is to be included in a modular kitchencomponent depth and only handles or switches may project.Some components have horizontal dimensions which aremodular in accordance with the international standard (fig. 4a).</p><p>Quite a few designs, however, have horizontal dimensionswhich conform to the international standard for the width, while thethickness of the door is added to the modular depth of the bodyproper of the component. The idea seems to be that, thereby, thebody proper of the most common components becomes square(fig. 4b).</p><p>Yet other designs, which resemble figure 4b, have a jointbetween the components that permits easy adjustment ofpositioning.</p><p>Because of the joint design and also because this type ofcomponent is often delivered with unpainted sides, a row of</p><p>158</p><p>n x M</p><p>- -1 -</p><p>(b)</p><p>nxM</p><p>00</p><p>22</p><p>(c)</p><p>nxM</p><p>(d)</p><p>Fig. 4.</p><p>components may have to be finished with a special 'gable'component which goes beyond the modular space allocated tothe row of kitchen components (fig. 4c). Figure 4d represents atype which offers some possibilities of adjustment. As a rule thesecomponents are also delivered with unpainted sides, butcladdings (veneer) at gables do not go beyond the modular spaceallocated to the component.</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f G</p><p>lasg</p><p>ow] </p><p>at 1</p><p>4:58</p><p> 04 </p><p>Oct</p><p>ober</p><p> 201</p><p>4 </p></li><li><p>THE RE-ENTRANT CORNER</p><p>Figure 5a shows a theoretical solution with a butt joint at there-entrant corner. The recessed door, in combination with the typeof hinge used, only permits an unsatisfactory utilisation of thespace in the cupboard.</p><p>The combination of door and hinge designs in figure 5b allows abetter utilisation of the space in the cupboard. This solutionrequires the cupboard to be displaced about 10 mm from themodular grid at the corner. The solution provides a better cornerdesign, which requires less accuracy in the positioning ofcomponents.</p><p>The corner design shown in figure 5c is the same as in 5b.Depending upon whether the thickness of the door is kept withinthe modular size of the component, this solution may be strictlymodular. The combination of door and hinge designs permitsmaximum utilisation of the space in the cupboards.</p><p>The combination of door and hinge design shown in figure 5d isalso commonly used. The displacement of the components at there-entrant corner may have to be about 33 mm for designs wherethe depth of the body proper of the component is kept modular.</p><p>The conclusion to be drawn from the above is that kitchenlayouts with re-entrant corners should have 'surplus' widths in bothdirections if a free choice of type of component is to be possible.</p><p>DOORS</p><p>The combination of modular doors with modular kitchencomponents can be handled in one of the following ways (fig. 6):</p><p>(a) A modular doorset with architraves will require more spacethan indicated by the modular dimensions. However, if thesizes, a, are 50 mm, the dimension between the adjoiningcupboard sides will still be modular, which also permitmodular cupboard components to be carried through overthe door (fig. 6a).</p><p>(b) Some modular doorsets with factory-made architraves haveso small a combined width that the solution shown in figure6a would leave a strip of wall visible between the architraveand the side of the cupboard. Here, a solution may be tosubstitute the architrave with a wooden strip on the side ofthe door turning towards the cupboards. This would,however, cause difficulties with regard to the positioning ofelectric switches on the cupboard side of the door (fig. 6b).</p><p>(c) Where rows of cupboards are used as room dividers, doorsmay in principle be positioned as mentioned under figures6a and 6b. The solution shown in figure 6c requires that asimple, extra door frame or lining (b) be placed on the sidesof the adjoining cupboards.</p><p>(d) Figure 6d shows a standard doorset positioned betweentwo cupboard sides. This necessitates the use of woodenstrips on both sides of the door instead of architraves. Somedoors designed to be used with architraves of plastic arenot well suited for such a change. On both sides of the doorit will be difficult to position switches.</p><p>(Note that in all cases where it is desired to carry through a row ofcupboards over the door, the architrave over the door must besubstituted by a strip; see also following section on visual order.)</p><p>VISUAL ORDER</p><p>The need for dimensional discipline in kitchen design is evidentbecause it may be desirable to substitute a cupboard component</p><p>1</p><p>I 1</p><p>- 4</p><p>jI1I1Ii1I</p><p>0</p><p>(a)</p><p>_ . _ J</p><p>1</p><p>1 &gt;</p><p>J</p><p>no;</p><p>0</p><p>i</p><p>- 4</p><p>(b)</p><p>1 1</p><p>ji1</p><p>O1 i</p><p>| |</p><p>1 * |</p><p>(10&gt;</p><p>0</p><p>\</p><p>I</p><p>(c)</p><p>1</p><p>,</p><p>1</p><p>-I</p><p>||</p><p>|1111</p><p>1</p><p>[1</p><p>: 33 &gt;</p><p> -</p><p>(d)</p><p>Fig. 5.</p><p>159</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f G</p><p>lasg</p><p>ow] </p><p>at 1</p><p>4:58</p><p> 04 </p><p>Oct</p><p>ober</p><p> 201</p><p>4 </p></li><li><p>A .</p><p>o o</p><p>B.</p><p>o o oo</p><p>o o</p><p>Fig. 7.</p><p>Fig. 6.</p><p>160</p><p>Fig. 8.</p><p>by a dishwasher, or to fit a new refrigerator into the space hithertooccupied by an old refrigerator.</p><p>In other cases, dimensional discipline may be enforced byfunctional requirements, e.g. that it is practical to have a ventilationunit placed above a cooking range.</p><p>However, in many cases the dimensional discipline is carriedfurther, in order to create a satisfactory degree of visual order.Thus it is likely that a row of wall-hung cupboards will finish at thesame vertical plane as a row of cupboards placed beneath (fig. 7),where the two rows of cupboards are joined to a wall (A) or a tallcupboard (B), or finish up against a door (C).</p><p>Attempts to create visual order must sometimes be carried evenfurther. At point (C) in figure 7, the architrave around the door willgo beyond the modular space taken up by the door proper. Thisproblem may be handled quite easily in the horizontal direction (cf.section on doors), but the visual order in the vertical direction maynot be considered satisfactory. A possible solution to this problemis indicated in figure 8.</p><p>STANDARD DETAILS</p><p>A minimum distance between the side of a cupboard componentand a wall may be about 20 mm, provided the wall is truly per-pendicular and that the cupboard door handles do not protrudemore (fig. 9a[1j).</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f G</p><p>lasg</p><p>ow] </p><p>at 1</p><p>4:58</p><p> 04 </p><p>Oct</p><p>ober</p><p> 201</p><p>4 </p></li><li><p>(a')</p><p>(b)</p><p>(c)</p><p>(d)</p><p>Fig. 9.</p><p>(a")</p><p>o</p><p>20-80</p><p>(e)</p><p>(f)</p><p>(g)</p><p>(h)</p><p>161</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f G</p><p>lasg</p><p>ow] </p><p>at 1</p><p>4:58</p><p> 04 </p><p>Oct</p><p>ober</p><p> 201</p><p>4 </p></li><li><p>In many cases the joint between the side of a cupboard com-ponent and a wall may have to be from 20-70 mm. In most kitchendesigns, the closing strip will as a rule be used also betweenwall-hung cupboards and a wall (figure 9a").</p><p>If the gap between the side of a cupboard and a wall is morethan 70 mm, the covering plank or the like must be properlysupported at the wall as well as at the side of the cupboards. Inkitchens with a fixed, recessed plinth the covering plank shouldalso be recessed. Gaps between wall-hung cupboards and wallsdo not have to be covered, when the gap is sufficiently wide toallow easy cleaning (fig. 9b).</p><p>Development of a 'sliding attachment1 as shown on figure 9c willmake it possible to compensate for rather large deviations in jointsizes and even make it possible to handle situations where wallsare out of plumb. Adjustment on the side will only be necessarywhen the wall has waves or other irregularities in the verticaldirection.</p><p>Figure 9d shows a solution which may be used where thedistance between the side of a component and a wall does notallow the use of a wider cupboard component or a separatecomponent of 2/W.</p><p>The extra panel shown may be given a surface corresponding tothat of the cupboard doors. When joining cupboard componentsto an end wall, building parts protruding from the wall must notprevent cupboard doors from being opened 90 or drawers frombeing pulled out (fig. 9e). Hinges may thus impose joint widths asindicated in figure 9a". A final decision on joint width will also beinfluenced by the design principle chosen.</p><p>In quite a few cases the door of a tall cupboard opens againstthe door handle of a nearby door, so that a distance of about65 mm may be necessary between the cupboard and the wall(fig. 9f).</p><p>The space needed for joint designs as shown on figures 9e and9f, plus extra space which may be needed at a re-entrarlt corner,will as a rule total more than 1 M. This has to be considered at theoutset, when the first sketches for a kitchen layout are made.</p><p>I n countries with cold winters, radiators may disturb the openingof cupboard doors, much in the same way as the door handlesmentioned above. The distance required between the side of thecupboard and the wall will often have to be more than 1/W (fig. 9g). Itmay be possible to fit a kitchen component without door in thisspace. For instance trays may be kept here if the distancebetween the front of the cupboard door and the end of the radiatoris large enough.</p><p>Some refrigerator doors are so thick and hinged in such a waythat the side of the refrigerator must be kept about 200 mm fromthe adjoining wall in order to allow the door to be opened 90. Evenwith refrigerators where the door is designed and hinged asshown, handles will often protrude and necessitate a distance of40-50 mm between the side of the refrigerator and the wall (fig.9h).</p><p>When refrigerators, dishwashers and the like are placed at are-entrant corner, or with a side against a wall, how far handles andservice buttons protrude should always be checked.</p><p>Fig. 10.</p><p>r</p><p>Fig. 11.</p><p>'undisciplined', dimensionall...</p></li></ul>