Modeling and Prototypes Foundations of Technology Modeling and Prototypes © 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEM 

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  • Foundations of Technology

    Modeling and Prototypes 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology Teacher Resource Unit 2 Lesson 5

    STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning

  • The BIG IdeaBig Idea:

    At various intervals of the Engineering Design Process, conceptual, mathematical, and physical models are used to evaluate the design solution.

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

  • Why Do We Use Models?Models are used throughout the Engineering Design Process to make observations and develop predictions.

    Those observations and predictions are then evaluated and, if necessary, solution is redesigned.

    Modeling allows an engineer/designer to test ideas against real-world conditions without incurring the cost of developing the product.

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

  • Types of ModelsModels can be conceptual, mathematical, or physical.

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

  • Conceptual ModelsConceptual models are abstract models that use language and graphic-based representations to convey meaning.

    They can include: Technical WritingGraphs and ChartsAnnotated SketchesTechnical Drawings

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

  • Conceptual Models Technical WritingTechnical Writing is a very precise style of writing. Good technical writers practice:

    Clarity the accurate use of words. Avoid jargon, abbreviations, slang, and unknown terms.

    Brevity only essential language should be included. The key information should be stated first.

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

  • Conceptual Models Technical WritingGood technical writers practice:

    Simplicity provide necessary details. Do not use flowery language or needlessly complex language.

    Active Voice use straightforward and strong language. Do not use a passive voice.

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

  • Conceptual Models Graphs and ChartsGraphs and charts are commonly used to show a relationship between two or more variables and to highlight a trend(s) for the audience.

    Graphs and charts are commonly used to show data and results from evaluations.

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

  • Conceptual Models Graphs and ChartsGraphs and charts commonly appear in the form of:Line Graph used to show the relationship between two or more objects and/or a trend.

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    Chart1

    4.32.42

    2.54.42

    3.51.83

    4.52.85

    Series 1

    Series 2

    Series 3

    Sheet1

    Series 1Series 2Series 3

    Category 14.32.42

    Category 22.54.42

    Category 33.51.83

    Category 44.52.85

    To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.

  • Conceptual Models Graphs and ChartsGraphs and charts commonly appear in the form of:Bar Graph used to show the relationship between objects by measuring frequency.

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    Chart1

    4.32.42

    2.54.42

    3.51.83

    4.52.85

    Series 1

    Series 2

    Series 3

    Sheet1

    Series 1Series 2Series 3

    Category 14.32.42

    Category 22.54.42

    Category 33.51.83

    Category 44.52.85

    To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.

  • Conceptual Models Graphs and ChartsGraphs and charts commonly appear in the form of:Pie Chart used to compare parts/percentages within one set of data.

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    Chart1

    8.2

    3.2

    1.4

    1.2

    Sales

    Sheet1

    Sales

    1st Qtr8.2

    2nd Qtr3.2

    3rd Qtr1.4

    4th Qtr1.2

    To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.

  • Conceptual Models Graphs and ChartsGraphs and charts commonly appear in the form of:Venn Diagram used to show overlap between two or more sets of data.

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    Data 1Data 2

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

  • Conceptual Models Annotated SketchesAnnotated Sketches are sketches that include notes or labels, dimensions, and/or symbols.

    Sketches are often used to show an idea or visibly capture a thought.

    All sketches should include some type of annotation. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

  • Conceptual Models Technical DrawingsTechnical drawing is a visual communication language that is used to communicate how something works or is constructed.

    All technical drawings include:Standard symbolsUnits of measurement

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

  • Conceptual Models Technical DrawingsTechnical Drawings can be produced using paper and pencil or on a computer using computer-aided design (CAD).

    We will use two basics types of technical drawings:Orthographic projectionIsometric projection

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

  • Mathematical ModelsMathematical models are abstract models that use the language of mathematics to describe the behavior of the solution.

    They can include:Statistical modelsDifferential equationsGame theoretic models (computer simulation) 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

  • Mathematical ModelsMathematical models are used to simulate how a system or product might behave.They frequently use symbolic algebra to represent and explain mathematical relationships.Computers are often used to improve mathematical models by performing long, complicated, and/or repetitive calculations.Mathematical models are used to express ideas precisely. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

  • Creating a Mathematical ModelPrior to developing a mathematical model you must first determine:

    The output or what you would like the model to achieve.The available data or what information can be used in the model.What research has been done to develop similar models.

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

  • Creating a Mathematical ModelOnce the background information and output have been developed, you should:

    Identify relationships among variables.Create/use an equation that relates those variables.Check the model for accuracy against similar systems or products.

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

  • Physical ModelsPhysical models are three-dimensional models that represent the solution.

    They can include:Mock-Up a representation of the final solution that does not function. Prototype performs the final solution and can be used for testing/evaluation. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

  • Physical Models Mock-UpA mock-up is a scale or full-size model primarily used for testing or demonstration.

    Mock-Ups are primarily used by engineers/designers to collect feedback from potential users. 2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

  • Physical Models - PrototypeA prototype is a scale or full-size working or partially working model.

    Prototypes are primarily used by engineers/designers to test and evaluate the design to further develop the product.

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    2013 International Technology and Engineering Educators Association STEMCenter for Teaching and Learning Foundations of Technology

    STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSlide #*TITLE SLIDE12/01/2009STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSTEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign[Authors: Please include teacher notes appropriately.] International Technology Education AssocSlide #*12/01/2009STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSTEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign[Authors: Please include teacher notes appropriately.] International Technology Education AssocSlide #*12/01/2009STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSTEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign[Authors: Please include teacher notes appropriately.] International Technology Education AssocSlide #*12/01/2009STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSTEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign[Authors: Please include teacher notes appropriately.] International Technology Education AssocSlide #*12/01/2009STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSTEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesignExample for Clarity avoid terms found on the Internet / text chat

    Example for Brevity Despite a poor first half, the Ravens won the Superbowl vs. The Ravens won the Superbowl despite a poor first half. International Technology Education AssocSlide #*12/01/2009STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSTEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesignExample Simplicity Use vs. Utilization / At this time vs. Now / Made arrangements for vs. Arranged

    Example Active Voice We completed X in order to determine Y vs. Y was determined by the group through several activities, which included X. International Technology Education AssocSlide #*12/01/2009STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSTEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign[Authors: Please include teacher notes appropriately.] International Technology Education AssocSlide #*12/01/2009STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSTEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign[Authors: Please include teacher notes appropriately.] International Technology Education AssocSlide #*12/01/2009STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSTEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign[Authors: Please include teacher notes appropriately.] International Technology Education AssocSlide #*12/01/2009STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSTEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign[Authors: Please include teacher notes appropriately.] International Technology Education AssocSlide #*12/01/2009STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSTEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign[Authors: Please include teacher notes appropriately.] International Technology Education AssocSlide #*12/01/2009STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSTEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign[Authors: Please include teacher notes appropriately.] International Technology Education AssocSlide #*12/01/2009STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSTEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign[Authors: Please include teacher notes appropriately.] International Technology Education AssocSlide #*12/01/2009STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSTEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign[Authors: Please include teacher notes appropriately.] International Technology Education AssocSlide #*12/01/2009STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSTEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign[Authors: Please include teacher notes appropriately.] International Technology Education AssocSlide #*12/01/2009STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSTEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign[Authors: Please include teacher notes appropriately.] International Technology Education AssocSlide #*12/01/2009STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSTEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign[Authors: Please include teacher notes appropriately.] International Technology Education AssocSlide #*12/01/2009STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSTEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign[Authors: Please include teacher notes appropriately.] International Technology Education AssocSlide #*12/01/2009STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSTEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign[Authors: Please include teacher notes appropriately.] International Technology Education AssocSlide #*12/01/2009STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSTEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign[Authors: Please include teacher notes appropriately.] International Technology Education AssocSlide #*12/01/2009STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education AssocSTEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign[Authors: Please include teacher notes appropriately.] International Technology Education AssocSlide #*12/01/2009STEMCenter for Teaching & Learning Engineering byDesign International Technology Education Assoc

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