mobilizing support

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change management

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  • *MOBILISING SUPPORT

    MOBILISING SUPPORT

  • Three main ideas discussed in this chapter:Organizational change is most successful when people in the organization take charge of the change (participation, involvement etc).It involves changing mindsets (influencing, negotiating).Effective communication strategies are crucial for change.

    *MOBILISING SUPPORT

    MOBILISING SUPPORT

  • In the book Terms of Engagement, Axelrod discusses four historical approaches to change.Leader driven approachProcess driven approachTeam driven approachChange management approach*MOBILISING SUPPORT

    MOBILISING SUPPORT

  • *MOBILISING SUPPORT

    LEADER DRIVEN APPROACHPROCESS DRIVEN APPROACHTEAM DRIVEN APPROACHCHANGE MANAGEMENT APPROACHWho leads the change effortLeader or chief executiveExperts or outside consultantsTeams within the organizationExperts (consultant) and teamsHow change communicated executedLeader (CEO)Leader uses authority and powerExperts or consultantsLeader support Experts and consultants execute changeEmployee teams recommend changesLeader (CEO)Parallel organizationsExperts/ consultants recommend changes with employee inputs.Leader approvalParallel organizations created Underlying assumptionsLeader/CEO knows bestExperts/ consultants knows bestEmployee knows bestExperts/consultants with employee inputs knows bestWhen approach suitableUneducated work forceLeader has knowledge and powerUneducated work forceExperts/ consultants have specialized knowledgeLeader is supportiveWorkforce educated and skilledOrganization is large and complexNo single person has all the knowledgeWorkforce educated and skilledBusiness focus needed in the changeNo single person has all the knowledge.

    MOBILISING SUPPORT

  • Parallel organizations is a series of groups or teams created in the organization with interlocking memberships i.e. some employees are members of more than one team or group.Cross functional teams: each team is made of people from different department and divisions.According to Axelrod, parallel organizations typically consist of sponsor team, steering team and multiple design teams.1. Sponsor team: is cross functional, with senior managers from different divisions/departments. This team initiate change, motivate others and provide resources for change.Sponsor team members their approval is required for major changes in policy or strategy.2. Steering team: is also cross-functional and has people from all levels of the organization. It drives day to day change.3. Design teams: are cross functional they include both managers and workers. They redesign processes, establish new procedures and get rid of processes and procedures that are no longer useful.These three types of teams operate in parallel with regular organizations. *MOBILISING SUPPORT

    MOBILISING SUPPORT

  • Parallel organizations are major organizational innovation in recent years.Its purpose is to expedite decision making by cutting down inter departmental barriers and improving the quality of decisions by involving employees in decision making.Selection of team member is based on their competence.The parallel organization is most effective when employee in different teams feel empowered so that they begin to own the change.The parallel organization is an organizational mechanism of generating employee involvement and commitment by encouraging ownership of change.*MOBILISING SUPPORT

    MOBILISING SUPPORT

  • Employee ownership, involvement and commitment to change are crucial to the success of organizational change.The first reason is pragmatic or practical.Today large organizations are complex, no single person has all the knowledge and information to take appropriate decisions.For example front line employees who are in touch with customers and actual operation of the organization are more likely to have information.These employees have the potential to provide creative suggestions that can enhance organizations competitiveness and effectiveness.So from pragmatic point of view, it makes lot of sense to involve employee in any change process will reduce the likelihood of opposition to change.The second reason for the emphasis on employee ownership, involvement and participation is ethical and philosophical.Employee involvement and participation good for employees. Develops them both as employee and human beings.It will lead to personal growth and learning/ individual freedom and democracy.Increase the quality of life of its stakeholders*MOBILISING SUPPORT

    MOBILISING SUPPORT

  • Any change effort that does not give them voice or participation denies them choices and opportunities, which is most likely to diminish the quality of life.To summarize before change can be executed effectively, employee commitment needs to be created, consent for change needs to be generated and support for change mobilised.

    THREE COMMON MISTAKES:There are three common mistakes that managers tend to make in getting the buy in for change.Assuming that great arguments would win hearts and minds.Assuming that persistence without compromising would sell the idea.Assuming that persuading is a one time effort.

    *MOBILISING SUPPORT

    MOBILISING SUPPORT

  • LESSONS FROM TIPPING POINT:The book by Malcolm Glad well, The Tipping Point looks at why major changes happen suddenly and unexpectedly in society.How do people get influenced? What persuades them to change their mind sets and behavior?This book identifies particular personality types who are creators and initiators of change.Glad well calls them connectors, maven and salesmen.CONNECTORS: are people who have a large number of social connections.They are individuals in organizations who seem to know everyone.They are well networked individuals who have contacts with peoples from a variety of background.Large number of acquaintances not necessarily their close friends such as weak ties friendly yet casual social connections.Connectors yield enormous influence because of their contacts this makes them crucial in change management.If connectors are convinced about change effort and are enthusiastic about it, they will spread message of change to all their contacts.

    *MOBILISING SUPPORT

    MOBILISING SUPPORT

  • An organization needs to identify its connectors to have a support for change.MAVENS: Second form of personality type, maven means one who accumulates knowledge.Mavens are human equivalents of data bases and data banks, they are astounding sources of information.The social skill that mavens possess is they want to help others because they like helping others.They are an effective source of influence and power.Support of mavens are crucial in organizational change management.SALESMEN:Third form of personality type.They are good at persuading others to do things that they would not do on their own.A salesman can convince an employee about the need for change and convert the employee into an enthusiastic supporter of change.Managers in charge of change need to identify people who have the attributes of salesmen warmth, empathy, energy and positive emotions.An organization identifying the connectors, mavens and salesmen among its employees provides a chance that the message of change will spread much more effectively in organizations.*MOBILISING SUPPORT

    MOBILISING SUPPORT

  • The Concept of Critical Mass:An important factor in mobilizing support for change.Critical mass is referred to as the support and commitment of proportion of employees to a change program me.The concept of critical mass in the change management literature is drawn from nuclear science, defined as: minimum amount of fuel needed in the core of a nuclear reactor in order to start a self sustaining chain reaction.Experience of change management practitioners suggest, that an organization needs a support of at least 30 to 40 percent of employees before launching a major transformational change.*MOBILISING SUPPORT

    MOBILISING SUPPORT

  • To mobilize support in an organization is to communicate the need for change to employees.Inform employees and other relevant stakeholders about expected changes.An effective communication strategy takes into account four critical elements of communication:1. the audience2. purpose of communication3. credibility of the communicator4. the context of communication The Audience:In structuring effective communication the nature of audience involvement is an important factor.It refers to the level of interest in and concern about the specific issue being communicated.Highly involved audiences are directly affected by the issues being communicated.

    *MOBILISING SUPPORT

    MOBILISING SUPPORT

  • Less involved audiences are easy to persuade, the changes in their mindsets are likely to be short term.Highly involved audiences are more difficult to persuade but changes in their mindsets lasts longer.Highly involved audiences are also likely to move less far from their initial mindsets compared to less involved audiences.An audience biased to the content of communication may hold a strong opinion about change.Audience favorable towards change are positively biased.Audience holding no opinion about change are neutral.Audience opposed towards change are negatively biased.Persuading negatively biased audience, we use two sided arguments.Two sided argument considers both the pros and cons of change.Credibility of Communicator:Affect the success or failure of communication efforts.There are five possible sources of credibility:Status of a communicator inside the organization.Good will enjoyed by the communicator.*MOBILISING SUPPORT

    MOBILISING SUPPORT

  • 3. Perceived expertise of communicator4. Perceived image of the communicator.5. Morality and fairness of the communicator.A manager can erode his or her credib

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