mix, derek - the european union foreign, and security policy (resumenz)

Download Mix, Derek - The European Union Foreign, And Security Policy (ResumenZ)

Post on 24-Oct-2015

27 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • CRS Report for CongressPrepared for Members and Committees of Congress

    The European Union: Foreign and Security Policy

    Derek E. Mix Analyst in European Affairs

    April 8, 2013

    Congressional Research Service

    7-5700 www.crs.gov

    R41959

  • The European Union: Foreign and Security Policy

    Congressional Research Service

    Summary The United States often looks to Europe as its partner of choice in addressing important global challenges. Given the extent of the transatlantic relationship, congressional foreign policy activities and interests frequently involve Europe. The relationship between the United States and the European Union (EU) has become increasingly significant in recent years, and it is likely to grow even more important. In this context, Members of Congress often have an interest in understanding the complexities of EU policy making, assessing the compatibility and effectiveness of U.S. and EU policy approaches, or exploring the long-term implications of changing transatlantic dynamics.

    The EU As a Global Actor

    Seeking to play a more active role in global affairs, the EU has developed a Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and a Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP). On many foreign policy and security issues, the 27 EU member states exert a powerful collective influence. On the other hand, some critics assert that on the whole the EU remains an economic power only, and that its foreign and security policies have little global impact. Some of the shortcomings in the EUs external policies stem from the inherent difficulties of reaching a complete consensus among the member state governments. Moreover, past institutional arrangements have often failed to coordinate the EUs full range of resources.

    Elements of EU External Policy

    The Common Foreign and Security Policy is based on unanimous consensus among the member states. CFSP is a mechanism for adopting common principles and guidelines on political and security issues, committing to common diplomatic approaches, and undertaking joint actions. Many analysts argue that Europes relevance in world affairs increasingly depends on its ability to speak and act as one.

    The EU is currently conducting 16 operations under its Common Security and Defense Policy. To establish a more robust CSDP, EU member states have been exploring ways to increase their military capabilities and promote greater defense integration. These efforts have met with limited success thus far. Civilian missions and capabilities, however, are also central components of CSDP; the majority of CSDP missions have been civilian operations in areas such as police training and rule of law.

    External policies in technical areas such as trade, humanitarian aid, development assistance, enlargement, and neighborhood policy are formulated and managed through a community process at the level of the EU institutions. (The European Neighborhood Policy seeks to deepen the EUs relations with its southern and eastern neighbors while encouraging them to pursue governance and economic reforms.) These are the EUs most deeply integrated external policies. Given events in North Africa, the Middle East, and some of the former Soviet states, EU policymakers have been rethinking how such external policy tools might be used to better effect.

    The United States, the EU, and NATO

    Although some observers remain concerned that a strong EU might act as a counterweight to U.S. power, others maintain that an assertive and capable EU is very much in the interest of the United

  • The European Union: Foreign and Security Policy

    Congressional Research Service

    States. The focus of the transatlantic relationship has changed since the end of the Cold War: it is now largely about the United States and Europe working together to manage a range of global problems. According to some experts, U.S.-EU cooperation holds the greatest potential for successfully tackling many of todays emergent threats and concerns.

    Nevertheless, NATO remains the dominant institutional foundation for transatlantic security affairs. U.S. policymakers have supported efforts to develop EU security policies on the condition that they do not weaken NATO, where the United States has a strong voice on European security issues. Despite their overlapping membership, the EU and NATO have struggled to work out an effective cooperative relationship. Analysts suggest that sorting out the dynamics of the U.S.-EU-NATO relationship to allow for a comprehensive and effective use of Euro-Atlantic resources and capabilities will be a key challenge for U.S. and European policymakers in the years ahead.

  • The European Union: Foreign and Security Policy

    Congressional Research Service

    Contents Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 1

    Issues for Congress .................................................................................................................... 1 Consensus, Coherence, and Continuity ..................................................................................... 2

    Principles and Philosophy ................................................................................................................ 3 The Treaty on European Union ................................................................................................. 3 The European Security Strategy ................................................................................................ 4

    The Common Foreign and Security Policy ...................................................................................... 5 Institutions and Actors ............................................................................................................... 5 Instruments ................................................................................................................................ 6 Assessment ................................................................................................................................ 8

    The Common Security and Defense Policy ................................................................................... 10 Institutions and Actors ............................................................................................................. 10 CSDP Missions ........................................................................................................................ 11

    Europe and Eurasia............................................................................................................ 11 Africa ................................................................................................................................. 12 Middle East and Asia......................................................................................................... 15

    Assessment .............................................................................................................................. 16 Community Policies ................................................................................................................... 17

    Institutions and Actors ............................................................................................................. 18 Trade ........................................................................................................................................ 18 Humanitarian Aid and Development Assistance ..................................................................... 19 Enlargement and Neighborhood Policy ................................................................................... 19 Assessment .............................................................................................................................. 20

    The Enhanced Role of the European Parliament ........................................................................... 21 Conclusion: Issues for the United States ....................................................................................... 22

    U.S.-EU Relations ................................................................................................................... 23 EU-NATO Relations ................................................................................................................ 23

    Contacts Author Contact Information........................................................................................................... 25

  • The European Union: Foreign and Security Policy

    Congressional Research Service 1

    Introduction The United States looks to Europe for partnership on an extensive range of global issues. In terms of international politics, security, and economics, Americans and Europeans tend to share broadly similar values, and often tend to pursue common or compatible goals. Many observers assert that the collective weight and influence of Europe and the United States, when projected through common transatlantic positions and complementary actions, fundamentally increases the odds that both sides will be able to achieve mutually desirable outcomes in world affairs.

    More than five decades after the Treaties of Rome (1957) launched a process of European integration, the European Union (EU) has come to play an increasingly important role in the life of its 27 member countries. Reflective of this evolution, significant aspects of policy making have been gradually shifting from national capitals to the EU institutions based in Brussels.

    Although the United States continues to maintain strong and active bilateral relations with the individual countries of Europe, and the transatlanti