minoan civilization

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1. MINOAN CIVILIZATI ON PREPARED BY : FITRIANI BINTI SHIFOLLAH ( 1312440 ) FASIHA BINTI BUSTAMI ( 1318146 ) 2. Period Middle bronze age ca. 2000 BCE ca. 1500 BCE. Location Island of Crete is located in the center of eastern Mediterranean at the crossroads of Africa, Asia and Europe. The name of Minoan is given by Sir Athur Evans (19th century British archeologist) based on discovered the palace (Knossos) of the legendary King Minos, who appears in several Greek myths. Origin 3. - Born 8 July 1851 in Nash Mills, Hertfordshire. - An English archaeologist - Fields Archaeology, museum management, journalism, statesmanship, philanthropy. - Known for Excavations at Knossos; developing the concept of Minoan civilization - The first to define Cretan scripts Linear A and Linear B, as well as an earlier pictographic writing. Sir Athur Evans 4. Chronology of Crete Prof. N. Platon (Greek archaeologist) has developed a chronology based on the palaces destruction and reconstruction. He divided Minoan Crete into : 1) Prepalatial ( 2600 - 1900 BC ) 2) Protopalatial ( 1900 - 1700 BC ) 3) Neopalatial (1700 - 1400 BC ) 4) Postpalatial ( 1400 1150 BC ) 5. Around 2000 BC a new political system was established with authority concentrated around a central figure a king. The first large palaces were founded and acted as centers for their respective communities, while at the same time they developed a bureaucratic administration which permeated Minoan society. Politics 6. CLOTHING - Minoan men wore loincloths and kilts. - Women wore robes that had short sleeves and layered flounced skirts. Women also had the option of wearing a strapless fitted bodice. - The patterns emphasized symmetrical geometric design. 7. It seems to be the first "leisure" society in existence, in which a large part of human activity focused on leisure activities, such as sports. In fact, the Cretans seem to have been as sports addicted as modern people; the most popular sports were boxing and bull-jumping. Women actively participated in both of these sports. BULL JUMPINGBOXING 8. Exported timber, food, cypress wood, wine, currants, olive oil, wool, cloth, herbs, and purple dye Imported precious stone, copper, ivory, tin, silver, gold and other raw materials Countries Egypt, Syria, Cyprus, the Aegean islands, the Greek mainland Economy 9. Plants Barley, wheat, vetch, chick peas, pigeon peas, cultivated peas, sesame hemp, flax, castor oil plants, grape, olive, fig trees, quinces, pears Animals Cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, bees Agriculture 10. There are numerous representations of goddesses, which leads to the conclusion that the Cretans were polytheistic. Some scholars have assumed that the Minoans worshipped a Great Goddess, the Mediterranian Magna Mater named Potnia, the lady. The double axe was probably potnias symbol and possibly the pillar and the snake was her symbol too. Ritual celebrations usually took place in sacred caves, on sanctuaries on mountain peaks, and in the palaces and villas which all had their own sanctuaries. Animal and bloodless sacrifices, along with processions were part of ritual worship of the great female nature goddess, and during these festivities worshipers used music, dance, and prayer to achieve a state of religious ecstacy that put them in touch with the supernatural. Religion 11. Snake Goddess MINOAN SACRIFICE with a slaughtered bull in the middle, two terrified animals below him and a woman offering on the right. Notice the double axe and horns of consecration next to the altar. 12. The first scripts resemble Egyptian hieroglyphs. Eteocretan language is a writing system found on the island of Crete. Later the emergence of a syllable called Linear A (not been deciphered). Linear B which was used by the Mycenaeans was the written script used at later Minoans times and was deciphered recently, in 1953. Most of the tablets found have been translated to contain inventories of goods in storage, and do shed some indirect light Language & Writing PHAISTOS DISC (Linear B) Minoan Linear A 13. The Minoans developed a visual art culture that seems to have been solely oriented around visual pleasure. The Minoans seem to have been the first ancient culture to produce art for its beauty rather than its function. During the Protopalatial Period (1900-1700 BC), the introduction of the potters wheel allowed efficient production of vessels with thin walls and subtle, symmetrical shapes. The Minoans not only decorated their palaces, they decorated them with art. To walk through a Minoan palace was to walk through room after room of splendid, wall- sized paintings. Art 14. Cont Minoan art frequently involves unimportant, trivial details of everyday life, such as a cat hunting a bird, or an octopus, or representations of sports events (rather than battles, or political events). 15. Minoan architecture consist of several structures which acted as centers for commercial, religious and administrative life. Archeologist have unearthed in Crete a Minoan landscape filled with tombs, palaces, villas, towns and the roads that connected them. The Minoan cities were connected with stone-paved roads. Streets were drained and water and sewer facilities were available to the upper class, through claypipes. Minoan buildings often had flat tiled roofs; plaster, wood, or flagstone floors, and stood two to three stories high. Typically the lower walls were constructed of stone and rubble, and the upper walls of mudbrick. Ceiling timbers held up the roofs. The materials used in construction varied; could include 16. THOLOS TOMBS For centuries the Minoans used Tholos Tombs and sacred caves, along with pithoi(storage jars) and larnakes (ash-chest) for burial of their dead. MINOAN VILLAS The Late Minoan I villa at Ayia Triada in Crete functioned as part of a larger administrative system. It was the center of an estate. Produce and other items from this estate were collected and dispersed as rations and wages to local workers and as tax payments to the palace of Phaistos. Neopalatial Crete was organized into an extensive system of 17. MINOANS PALACES The Minoans palaces provide a forum for gathering and celebrations, while at the same time they offered storage for the crops and workshop for the artists. They were built over time to occupy low hills at strategic places around the island in a manner so complex that they resembled labyrinths to outside visitors. There were expanded drainage systems, irrigation, aqueducts, and deep wells that provided fresh water to the inhabitants. The palaces were technologically advanced with expanded drainage systems, irrigation, aqueduct and deep wells that provided fresh water to the inhabitants. They were laced with impressive interior and exterior staircases, light wells, massive columns, storage magazines, and gathering outdoor places -- the precursor to ancient theaters. THE PALACE AT KNOSSOS U SHAPE PLAN WITH A CENTRAL COURTYARD RUINS 18. THE PALACE AT KNOSSOS Construction on the palace at Knossos, according to legend the palace of King Minos, was begun perhaps as early as 2000 B.C., and by 1900 BC, it was fairly close to its final form--a large single building with a central courtyard. 19. During the Second Palace period, 1700-1450 BC, the Palace of Minos covered nearly 22,000 square meters (about 5.4 acres) and contained storage rooms, living quarters, religious areas, and banquet rooms. What appears to be a jumble of rooms connected by narrow passageways probably gave rise to the myth of the Labyrinth; the structure itself was built of a complex of dressed masonry and clay- packed rubble, and then half-timbered. 20. THE CITY OF KNOSSOS Cyprus trees Aerial view of the palace at knossos Columns wider at the top Timber framing Rubble masonry 21. 1st Factor Professor marinates was the first to suggest in 1939 that the eruption of Thera, along with the associated effects, was the cause for the catastrophe. The theory argues that the earthquakes destroyed the palaces, tsunamis obliterated the fleet and peers of the Minoans, and the volcanic ash of Thera covered the whole island destroying, crops and suffocating animals. 2nd factor Invasion and occupation of Crete by the Mycenaeans. Their documented invasion took place around 1400, and in combination with the effects of the Thera eruption present a likely scenario for the final destruction of the Minoans civilization. Downfall

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