middle ages review mrs.mariconi chapter 1. end of middle ages 1300, black death, starvation,...
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Middle Ages ReviewMrs.MariconiChapter 1
End of Middle Ages1300, Black Death, starvation, warfare had overtaken EuropeCatastrophic events, enormous loss of life may have led to changes of the 1300sDecrease in population led to:Increase in food productionDecline in food pricesMore money to spendSpecialization in products
Agenda for 9/8Finish going over rules/regsBook situationStudent info sheetWrite down AIM in notebookVocab page 27 and 29 #1 and 2 on those pages in your notebook!Start notes if there is time remaining
Aim:How did the Middle Ages start? Why were they called the Dark Ages?
PeriodizationEarly Middle Ages: 500 1000
High Middle Ages: 1000 1250
Late Middle Ages: 1250 - 1500
Charlemagne: 742 to 814
Europe in the 6c.
Charlemagneduring 400 and 700 Europe was divided by invaders and into small kingdoms800 Charlemagne was first to provide unityHe revived learning and art, provided safety and strengthened the RC ChurchHe died in 814, and empire crumbled and new invaders conquered Europe causing the Dark Ages and led to feudalism
A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service.
Heart of medieval life, it was one or more villages. Lands were planted and harvested by serfs.
Medieval GuildsCommercial Monopoly: Controlled membership apprentice journeyman master craftsman Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece]. Controlled prices
Evolution of Englands Political System Henry I: Williams son. set up a court system. Exchequer dept. of royal finances. Henry II: established the principle of common law throughout the kingdom. grand jury. trial by jury.
Magna Carta, 1215
King John I Great Charter monarchs were not above the law. kings had to consult a council of advisors. kings could not tax arbitrarily.
CrusadesHoly war called for by the Popes, started in 1050s when the Byzantine empire was attackedMuslims vs. ChristiansFought many battles for over 200 yearsChief goal to conquer the holy landLeft many dead, unsuccessful in conqueringBenefits new foods, trade increases and gave the church more power
Middle Ages and ReligionAge of FaithChurch StructureKings vs. PopesOther Influences
The Medieval Catholic Church filled the power vacuum left from the collapse of the classical world. monasticism: St. Benedict Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience. provided schools for the children of the upper class. inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war. libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts. monks missionaries to the barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface]
Rise of the Catholic ChurchRead page 19
Church StructureThe Pope: The political and spiritual leader of the Roman Catholic ChurchCardinals: next to be the Pope, work as Various leaders of the church
Bishops , Abbotts, AbbessesLeaders of smaller areas such as a house or church
Priests and Nuns:Took care of the sick, poor, & conducted religiousServices only priests)
The Power of the Medieval Church bishops and abbots played a large part in the feudal system. the church controlled about 1/3 of the land in Western Europe. tried to curb feudal warfare only 40 days a year for combat. curb heresies crusades; Inquisition tithe 1/10 tax on your assets given to the church. Peters Pence 1 penny per person [paid by the peasants].
Kings vs. PopesHenry IV of GB vs. Pope Gregory VIIIGregory issued declaration reducing the Kings ability to appoint BishopsHenry IV considered Gregorys declaration an attack on his power.Gregory excommunicated Henry IV from the church.Henry IV traveled to Italy to beg the Pope to be allowed in the church
Aim: Power in the Middle Ages, who had it and why?
Quietly, answer the following questions in your notebook. (answers can be found on page 27 or 29) What aspects of society did the church control during the Middle Ages? What was the Magna Carta? Why do you think it is important?
Other InfluencesDaily Life-Farming and agriculture dominated the daily lifes of the serfs & peasants, church was center, only day off was Sunday for ChurchUniversities-Began to be centers of learning outside the church, only ones who could read were priests and nunsArt-Religious art dominated during this time, lots of pictures of Jesus and saintsGothic Style Cathedrals-Became centers of religion for the large towns, famous for stained glass windows
Power of the ChurchConcordat of Worms1122 C.E. Met in Worms, GermanyThe Kings and the Pope agreed that the Pope would appoint members of the Church.Decreased the Kings powerIncreased the Popes powerConcordat of Worms
The Age of FaithMission of the Church-To save the soul of all the membersTithe-People donated one tenth (1/10) of the produce from their lands to the church each year.Wealth-Church became wealthiest group in EuropeCenter of daily life-The local church served as a church, meeting place, and shelter during war.Community-Created a sense of community & togetherness between Christians
EducationMonasteries-Provided education to the men entering the clergyUniversities-Developed due to people outside the church wanting to be educatedCordoba & Baghdad-Muslim cities with important schools and centers of learningWomen-Women were not allowed to study at the universities
Gothic CathedralsCathedralsPointed arches.High, narrow vaultsThinner walls.Flying buttresses.Elaborate, ornate, airier interiors.Stained-glass windows
The Gothic Cathedral
Gothic Floor Plans
Interior of a Gothic Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral, England
Stained Glass WindowsFor the glory of God. For religious instructions.
St. Etienne, Bourges, late 12cFlying Buttresses
Notre Dame Cathedral
The good, of course, is always beautiful, and the beautiful never lacks proportion. --- PlatoRose Window Chartres Cathedral, Paris
Rose Windows of Various KindsOriginal DesignBuddhist MandalaLabyrinth, 1200
Relinquary, late 12cLate Medieval Church ArtChalice, paten, and straw, mid-13c
Printed PsaltarGregorian Chant
St. Francis Rule ApprovedGiotto1288-92?Tempera on wood and ground gold.Late Medieval Art
Giotto 1305 Tempera on wood and ground gold.The Crucifixion