Micronutrient Management Dorivar Ruiz Diaz Soil Fertility and Nutrient Management

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<ul><li><p>Micronutrient ManagementDorivar Ruiz DiazSoil Fertility and Nutrient Management</p></li><li><p>OutlineOverview micronutrientsFactors to be consideredS, Zn, Cl, and FeDeficiency symptoms Fertilization strategies and management Current studies </p></li><li><p>Essential MicronutrientsMinor elements or trace elementsIncreased interest in micronutrientsHigher crop yields and micronutrient removal ratesDeclining soil organic matter, a major source of most micronutrientsN, P and K fertilizers contain lower amounts of micronutrient impuritiesExcessive levels can cause toxic effects on plantsIn Kansas: Fe, S, Zn, and Cl. Other micronutrients: B, Mg, Cu, Mn, and Ni.</p></li><li><p>Organic MatterImportant source of most micronutrients.Simple organic compounds as chelates.S, Zn and B deficiencies are more likely to occur in soils low in O.M.Deficiencies of Cu and Mn are most common in peat soils. </p></li><li><p>Soil pH and micronutrient availabilitySoil pH affects availability of micronutrients.In general the solubility and availability of micronutrients are greatest in acid soils and lowest in high pH calcareous soils.Exception is Mo.In some soils, high levels of soluble Fe, Al and Mn may be toxic to plants.</p></li><li><p>Sulfur (S)Photos by Brian Lang, IA</p></li><li><p>Soil situations and climatic conditions aggravating deficiency symptoms Coarse textured soils (sandy soils) Low organic matter soils Cold, wet soils Slow release of S from organic matter Low atmospheric depositionNo application from Manure Other fertilizersSulfur Deficiencies</p></li><li><p>SN</p></li><li><p>10 kg SO4/ha = 3 lb S/acreSulfur Deposition</p></li><li><p>Corn Response to SulfurJ. Sawyer, 2007</p></li><li><p>Wheat S Rec. (Lb/A) = (0.6 Y Goal) (2.5 % OM) Profile Sulfur Other Sulfur Credits</p><p>Corn and Sorghum S Rec. (Lb/A) = (0.2 Y Goal) (2.5 % OM) Profile Sulfur Other Sulfur Credits</p><p>Soybean S Rec. (Lb/A) = (0.4 Y Goal) (2.5 % OM) Profile Sulfur Other Sulfur Credits</p><p> Subsoil S may be significant.</p><p> Profile soil test for S, 0-24 inches, also good for nitrate and Cl.</p><p>Sulfur Fertilizer Recommendation</p></li><li><p>Zinc (Zn)</p></li><li><p>ZincFrequently deficient micronutrientAbsorbed by plant roots as Zn++Involved in the production of chlorophyll, protein, and several plant enzymesDeficiency symptomsMost distinctive in corn with new leaves out of whorl turning yellow to white in a band between the leaf midvein and margin</p></li><li><p>Sensitive crops Corn, sorghumSoil Situation Low organic matter, high pH (&gt;7.4), eroded soil Coarse texture, restricted rootingHigh P application in conjunction with borderline or low zinc availability High soil P alone does not create deficiencyClimatic Conditions Cool and wet soilZinc Deficiencies</p></li><li><p>Phosphorus and ZincZn deficiency impairs plant P regulation.</p><p>Large amounts of starter applied P can enhance Zn deficiency if soil Zn is low and no Zn fertilizer is applied.Adriano and Murphy, KSU</p><p>P2O5ZnYieldLeaf tissuelb/acrebu/acreP, %Zn, ppm001010.14120101020.1624800730.731080101620.4117</p></li><li><p>P and Zn Effects On Corn YieldsSt. Marys, KS Kansas State University </p><p>P2O5 Zn Bcast Starter Lb / A Corn Yield (Bu/A) 00107010121115400121934010139140</p></li><li><p>Wheat response to foliar Zn and Cuwestern Kansas1 lb/acre Zn1 lb/acre CuControlB. Olson, 2009</p><p>Soil TestYearSiteVarietyCopperZinc - - - - ppm - - - -20071Danby1.01.32Jagalene1.01.03Wesley1.00.74Jagalene0.70.820081Jagalene0.60.22Ike1.01.23TAM1111.20.6</p></li><li><p>Wheat response to foliar Zn and Cuwestern KansasB. Olson, 2009</p><p>TreatmentYield20072008- - - - - bu/acre - - - - Zinc6342Copper6540Control6342LSD (0.05)NSNS</p></li><li><p>Zinc Fertilizer RecommendationCorn, Sorghum and Soybeans Zinc Recommendation</p><p>Zn Rate = 11.5 (11.25 ppm DTPA Zn)</p><p>If DTPA Zn &gt; 1.0 ppm then Zn Rec = 0If DTPA Zn </p></li><li><p>Application MethodsBroadcastPreferred to correct a low Zn soil test5 to 15 pound will increase soil test for a number of yearsInorganic Zn is more economical than chelates at these ratesBandVery efficient method of applying Zn0.5 lb Zn/Acre of inorganic Zn is generally sufficientAnnual applications will be needed for low testing soils</p></li><li><p>Chloride (Cl)</p></li><li><p>Chloride (Cl)Wheat, corn, sorghum deficiencies in Kansas</p><p>Deficiencies most likely in higher rainfall areas with no K application history - central and eastern part of state</p><p>Soluble, mobile anion</p><p>Addition of KClIncreased yields with high levels of available KReduced incidence of plant diseaseInternal water relationships, osmotic regulation, enzyme activation and other plant processes</p></li><li><p>Chloride fertilization for wheat and sorghum, in Kansas</p><p>B. Gordon, 2009</p><p>Chloride rateWheat yield (Var. 2145)lb/acrebu/acre066107120713073LSD(0.05)= 3</p></li><li><p>Wheat response to Cl and fungicide applicationB. Gordon, 2009</p><p>Overley wheat yieldChloride rateNo fungicideFungicidelb/acre - - - - - - - - bu/acre - - - - - - - - -04854105762206064306064LSD(0.05)= 3</p></li><li><p>Chloride Fertilization on Wheat</p><p>Grain YieldChlorideMarion Co.Saline CoStafford Co.RateSite ASite BSite ASite BSite CSite DSite ASite BAvg.lb/a- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - bu/a - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -045805189837073646920478554899075807074Soil test Cl, lb/a (0-24")77142271471512*Average over either 12 or 16 varieties. Soil test Cl, lb/a (0-24")</p></li><li><p>Cl Fertilizer RecommendationWheat, corn and sorghum</p><p>Profile soil ChlorideChloride recommendationppmlb/acrelb Cl/acre&lt; 4&lt; 30204 - 630 - 4510&gt; 6&gt; 450</p></li><li><p>Iron (Fe)Iron in the plantCatalyst in the production of chlorophyllInvolved with several enzyme systemsDeficiency symptomsYellow to white leaf colorSymptoms first appear on the younger leavesWide range of susceptibility of different cropsSorghum, field beans and soybeans are more sensitive than corn and alfalfaVarieties differ within crops</p></li><li><p>Iron Deficiency</p></li><li><p>Iron Deficiency - CausesIron deficiency is caused by a combination of stresses rather than a simple deficiency of available soil FeSoil Chemical FactorspH, carbonates, salinity (EC), available Fe (DTPA-Fe), high nitrate-N.Cool, wet soilsBiotic factorsVariety, SCN, root rotting fungi, interplant competition.</p></li><li><p>Effect of soil nitrate? </p></li><li><p>The nitrate theory Iron is part of the chlorophyll moleculeIron taken up as Fe+++ (ferric)Iron in chlorophyll exists as Fe++ (ferrous)High concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen inhibit conversion of Fe+++ to Fe++</p></li><li><p>Irrigated soybean</p></li><li><p>Nitrogen application and iron chlorosisG. Rehm, 2007</p></li><li><p>Soybean population and iron chlorosis2.01.51.0Iron chlorosis score5= Dead; 1=GreenNeave, 2004</p><p>Chart1</p><p>13743137431</p><p>23743837438</p><p>33744537445</p><p>2.83745937459</p><p>2.83746637466</p><p>3.13747337473</p><p>Series 1</p><p>Series 2</p><p>Series 3</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>Series 1Series 2Series 3</p><p>6/24/021</p><p>7/1/022</p><p>7/8/023</p><p>7/22/022.8</p><p>7/29/022.8</p><p>8/5/023.1</p><p>To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.</p></li><li><p>Soybean population yield</p></li><li><p>Soybean Fe Study - 2009Varieties (2): high and low IDC tolerance.Seed treatment: with and without 0.6 lb/acre of EDDHA Fe (6.0%).Foliar treatments:0.1 lb/acre EDDHA Fe (6.0%)0.1 lb/acre HEDTA Fe (4.5%)No foliar treatment4 locations with 5 replications</p></li><li><p>ObjectivesEvaluate fertilization strategies.Determine soil parameters (diagnostic):Fe, Mg, P, K, Ca, OM, OC, TN, pH, EC, Carbonates, nitrate-N.Determine optimum plant tissue level.Evaluate possible interaction of parameters, both in soil and plant. Possible Fe-Mn interaction?</p></li><li><p>Soybean seed treatment with Fe chelate </p></li><li><p>Seed coating treatment</p></li><li><p>Chlorophyll meter readings</p></li><li><p>Chlorophyll meter readings</p></li><li><p>Plant height at maturity</p></li><li><p>Var AG3205: Low IC toleranceSoybean grain yield</p><p>TreatmentAverage yieldW/O Seed coating396% Foliar404.5% Foliar37No39W/ seed coating506% Foliar524.5% Foliar49No49</p></li><li><p>Soybean grain yieldVar AG2906: Very Good IC tolerance</p><p>TreatmentAverage yieldW/O Seed coating366% Foliar354.5% Foliar38No35W seed coating506% Foliar474.5% Foliar52No52</p></li><li><p>Are these yield values significantly different?</p><p>EffectF ValuePr &gt; FSignificanceVariety2.110.1487NSSeed trt69.6</p></li><li><p>Common Iron FertilizersFertilizer SourceIron SulfateIron ChelatesOther OrganicsManure - bestFe (%)19-405-125-11??</p></li><li><p>Average animal manure micronutrient content</p><p>Manure sourceIronManganeseBoronZincCopper-----------------lb/wet ton---------------------Dairy solid0. solid19. gal---------------------Dairy liquid0. liquid2.</p></li><li><p>SummaryFe deficiency potential can not be explained well by a single soil parameter.Development of an soil index may be the best alternative.Foliar treatment seems to increase the greenness effectively. But seed coating provides higher yield increases.Select a soybean variety that is tolerant to Fe chlorosis.Avoid excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer to the crop that precedes soybeans in the rotation.</p></li><li><p>SummaryIncreased interest for foliar application of nutrients.Tissue test can provide good indication for micronutrient needs.Increased interest for mixing micronutrients with fluid fertilizer for band application.Seed coating with micronutrients is an alternative.</p></li><li><p>Questions?Dorivar Ruiz Diaz</p><p>ruizdiaz@ksu.edu785-532-6183www.agronomy.ksu.edu/extension/</p><p>Corn is highly sensitive to zinc (Zn) deficiency. High P availability can induce Zn deficiency in soils that are marginally Zn deficient. In this example from Kansas, band applying P without Zn made a Zn deficiency worse than by broadcasting the P without Zn. The corn in the background received 10 lb/A of Zn with P, and this corrected the deficiency. The soil in this example was low in both P and Zn. (Adriano and Murphy).</p><p>When plants are Zn deficient, their ability to regulate P accumulation is severely impaired. As a consequence, P absorbed by the roots accumulates in excess in the shoot (as can be seen in the data above for the Kansas example). The negative interaction between the two nutrients appears to occur in the plant, not in the soil. Zinc and phosphate can react in the soil to form zinc phosphate, but its solubility is usually sufficient to provide adequate Zn to plants. (Havlin et al., 1999).</p><p>Data source: Adriano, D.C. and L.S. Murphy. 1967. Phosphorus-zinc fertilization of corn. Kansas State University, Kansas Fertilizer Handbook. pp. 68-71.Havlin, J.L., J.D. Beaton, S.L. Tisdale, and W.L. Nelson. 1999. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers. Sixth edition. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458.</p></li></ul>


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