Microbial Inoculants: Effective Microorganisms (EM) & Indigenous Microorganisms (IMO)

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<ul><li><p>Microbial Inoculants:Effective Microorganisms (EM) &amp;Indigenous Microorganisms (IMO)</p><p>Resilient Farmer Workshop</p><p>April 27, 2013</p><p>Steve Diver, M.Sc.</p><p>Agri-Horticultural Consulting</p><p>www.agri-synergy.com</p><p>April 27, 2013</p><p>Kerr Center for Sustainable Agriculture</p><p>Poteau, OK</p></li><li><p>Kerr Centers morning Field Day, ResilientFarmer 2013 workshop:</p><p>Biochar</p><p>Thermophilic compost</p><p>Vermicompost</p><p>Fermented sweet potatoes for worms (IMO)</p><p>Aerated Compost Tea</p><p>Solo backpack bio-sprayer modifications</p><p>Fermented Plant Juice (IMO)</p><p>No-till vegetables with cover crops &amp;</p><p>bio-intensive crop rotations</p></li><li><p>Without living organisms and organic matter, the birthof soil is not possible Kyoichi Kumada (1987)</p><p>Objectives for 1st afternoon seminar, ResilientFarmer 2013 workshop:</p><p>1. Mini review of soil organic matter (SOM) &amp;1. Mini review of soil organic matter (SOM) &amp;soil foodweb processes from 2012 workshop</p><p>2. Soil biology principles</p><p>3. Microbial inoculants in perspective</p><p>4. Effective Microorganisms (EM)</p><p>5. Indigenous Microorganisms (IMO)</p></li><li><p>Foodweb pyramid in one square meter of soil</p><p>James B. Nardi, Life in the Soil, 2007</p></li><li><p>Soil Foodweb Diagram</p></li><li><p>Soil microorganisms live in association with plantroots and excrete nutrients &amp; sticky substances</p><p>VAM mycorrhizal fungi onplant root: Paula Flynn</p><p>Alfalfa root with bacterialrhizosphere: Jennifer Fox</p></li><li><p>SOM = Soil Foodweb HabitatSOM = Soil Foodweb Habitat</p></li><li><p>Biochar for Improved SOM + SoilFoodweb Habitat in 2013 Workshop</p></li><li><p>Charcoal addition to thesoil provides nutrientand water storagecenter for mycorrhizalfungi</p><p>Charcoal is sought out by AM fungi</p><p>fungi</p><p>Their hyphae invadecharcoal pores andsupport sporereproduction</p><p>OgawaKansai Environmental</p><p>Fungi on New Char</p><p>Fungi on 100 Yr Old CharPhoto: www.eprida.com</p></li><li><p>Rapid colonization of charcoal surfaceby fungal hyphae (7 days old)</p><p>www.agri-synergy.com</p></li><li><p>Beneficial Properties of Biochar</p><p> Habitat for soil microorganisms (e.g.,Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi)</p><p> Increased soil carbon</p><p> Increased CEC (cation exchange capacity) Increased CEC (cation exchange capacity)</p><p> Increased AEC (anion exchange capacity)</p><p> Mimicking terra preta soil regeneration</p></li><li><p>Terra Preta soils, Amazonian Black Earth</p><p>Transformed terra preta Nutrient-poor Oxisol in tropics</p></li><li><p>Soil Biology Principle</p><p>The Number and Diversity of soil micro-organisms is both an indicator &amp; a driverof soil fertiliy, biocontrol, and other soilfunctions.</p><p>Soil Fertility, Disease Suppression,Soil Structure, Humus, Soil Moisture</p></li><li><p>Lower Bacterial Diversity Higher Bacterial Diversity</p></li><li><p>Biological Control Concept</p><p>General Suppression</p><p>Abundance &amp; Diversity of soil micro-organisms promotes soil fertility andbiological control; e.g., soil health (i.e.,biological control; e.g., soil health (i.e.,compost extracts)</p><p>Specific Suppression</p><p>Specific microbes are antagonistic to plantpathogenic organisms; e.g., biofungicides(i.e., microbial inoculants)</p></li><li><p>Worm Gold vermicompost tea extract</p><p>Photo: BBC Labs</p><p>Pathogen Inhibition Assay</p></li><li><p>Graeme Sait</p><p>Nutri-TechSolutions</p><p>Australia</p><p>Field Applications:</p><p>Microbe-Mineral</p><p>Blends &amp; Brews</p><p>Fertigation</p><p>Foliars</p></li><li><p>Microbial Inoculants in Perspective</p><p> Tool to manage soil biology, soil fertility,organic wastes, and create bio-fertilizers</p><p> Can be used to manipulate the rhizosphere &amp;phyllosphere (e.g., biological control of plantphyllosphere (e.g., biological control of plantdisease organisms)</p><p> Increases the efficiency of deliverednutrients; can reduce fertilizer rate (e.g.,MEND concept)</p><p> Not a silver bullet; still need minerals andSOM management for healthy crops</p></li><li><p>Introduction to EM and IMO</p><p> Probiotics for human, animal, andenvironmental health</p><p> Fermentation technologies</p><p> Understanding aerobic &amp; anaerobic systems Understanding aerobic &amp; anaerobic systems</p><p> Multiple uses for treating soils, crops,livestock, organic wastes</p><p> Transform raw materials into bio-fertilizers</p></li><li><p>Probiotics = Organisms or substances whichProbiotics = Organisms or substances whichcontribute to intestinal microbial balance and health</p><p>i.e., beneficial and effective microorganisms</p><p>Lactobacillus casei, L. brevis, L. kefir, L. acidophilus,Saccharomyces cerevisae, S. unisporus, S. turicensis,Steptococcus thermophilus</p></li><li><p>Fermented Probiotics = Kombucha &amp; Water Kefir</p></li><li><p>EM (Effective Microorganisms)</p><p>Phototrophic bacteria Yeast</p><p>Lactic acid bacteriaActinomycetes</p></li><li><p>EM = Effective Microorganisms</p><p>Developed by Dr. Teruo Higa, Univ. ofRyukyus in Okinawa, Japan</p><p>Liquid microbial inoculant (shelf-stable)</p><p>Mixed culture of naturally-occurringMixed culture of naturally-occurringbeneficial microorganisms</p><p>Fermentative anaerobic + aerobicmicroorganisms co-existing symbiotically</p></li><li><p>Main Species of EM Microorganisms*</p><p>Lactic acid bacteria</p><p> Lactobacillus plantarum</p><p> Lactobacillus casei</p><p> Lactococcus lactis</p><p>Photosynthetic bacteria</p><p>Actinomycetes</p><p> Streptomycetes albus</p><p> Streptomycetes griseus</p><p>Fermenting fungiPhotosynthetic bacteria</p><p> Rhodopseudomonas palustrus</p><p> Rhodobacter spaeroides</p><p>Yeasts</p><p> Saccharomyces cerevisiae</p><p> Candida utilis</p><p> Aspergillus oryzae</p><p> Mucor hiemalis</p><p>*early EM literature</p></li><li><p>Key Properties of EM</p><p> Fermentative anaerobics</p><p> Microbial functions</p><p> Multiple farm uses Multiple farm uses</p><p> Antioxidative action of microbes</p><p> Microbial metabolites</p></li><li><p>Putrefactive &amp; FermentativeAnaerobics</p><p>Putrefaction:</p><p>Production of odors and harmful substances (hydrogensulfide, mercaptan, ammonia, oxidation substances) viaanaerobic microbial metabolism; pathogenic organisms.anaerobic microbial metabolism; pathogenic organisms.</p><p>Fermentation:</p><p>Production of useful substances (enzymes, amino acids,organic acids, anti-oxidative substances) via anaerobicmicrobial metabolism; beneficial organisms.</p></li><li><p>Microbial Pathways in Organic MatterDecomposition</p><p>1. Aerobic</p><p>E.g., Thermophilic compost</p><p>2. Putrefactive anaerobic2. Putrefactive anaerobic</p><p>E.g., Stinky organic wastes (non-managed)</p><p>3. Fermentative anaerobic</p><p>E.g., EM bokashi (managed)</p></li><li><p>Two Suppliers of EM &amp; EM-like Cultures</p><p>TeraGanix (Texas)</p><p>www.teragamix.com</p><p>Effective Microorganisms (EM-1)Effective Microorganisms (EM-1)</p><p>SCD Probiotics (Missouri)</p><p>www.scdprobiotics.com</p><p>ProBio Balance mother culture</p><p>Bio Ag ready-to-use</p></li><li><p>Activated EM Recipe (AEM)</p><p>1:1:20 Recipe for AEM</p><p>Per 1 Gallon Per 5 Gallon</p><p>EM 3/4 C 4 CEM 3/4 C 4 C</p><p>Molasses 3/4 C 4 C</p><p>Water 14.5 C 72 C</p><p>Ferment = 2 weeks</p><p>pH = 3.5</p></li><li><p>Fermentation Box keep it warm</p><p>Fermentation technology: bucket,airlock, sample thief</p></li><li><p>Using AEM in Agriculture</p><p> Soil, organic mulches, cover crops</p><p> Foliar fertilization &amp; plant protection</p><p> Fermented plant extracts</p><p> Vermicompost integration Vermicompost integration</p><p> Food waste handling &amp; composting</p><p> Livestock probiotics: water &amp; feed</p><p> Livestock remediation: stalls, manures,lagoons</p></li><li><p>AEM Application Rates</p><p>Use AEM at Following Dilutions</p><p>1:50 manures, stalls</p><p>1:100 composts, stalls</p><p>1:250 soils1:250 soils</p><p>1:500 soils &amp; foliar</p><p>1:1000 irrigation</p><p>1:2500 animal drinking water</p></li><li><p>Bokashi kitchen bucket tokeep food scraps fresh; thenadd to compost pile, or bury insoil, or feed to worm bin</p><p>EM Bran Bokashi</p></li><li><p>EM Bran Bokashi</p></li><li><p>Organic farm with packaged salad mix, Switzerland</p></li><li><p>Salad packing-shed waste, treated with EM</p></li><li><p>EM-treated salad waste, compost windrow feedstock</p></li><li><p>EM Bokashi Balls for bioremediation of pond waterin Africa</p><p>Photo: Ibo Zimmerman, Polytechnic of Namibia</p></li><li><p>Photo: Ibo Zimmerman, Polytechnic of Namibia</p></li><li><p>EM Microbial Cultures</p><p>AEM = Activated EM</p><p>FPE = Fermented Plant Extract</p><p>EM-5 = Foliar Pest Control</p><p>FF = Fermented FishFF = Fermented Fish</p><p>Bokashi = Fermented Organic Matter</p><p>EM-X = EM Antioxidant Beverage</p><p>EM Ceramics = Embedded EM</p></li><li><p>FPE = Fermented Plant Extracts</p><p>Stinging nettle</p><p>Comfrey</p><p>Equisetum</p><p>Also called:</p><p>Herbal teas</p><p>Liquid manures</p><p>Plant-based pest control</p><p>Comfrey</p></li><li><p>Plant Species for EM-FPE, Auroville</p><p>Turmeric Ginger</p><p>Tobacco Papaya</p><p>Custard Apple Vitex</p><p>Neem CalotropisNeem Calotropis</p><p>Onion Garlic</p><p>Aloe Tulsi</p><p>Pongam Euphorbia</p><p>*Table of EM-FPE for 64 different insects &amp; diseases</p></li><li><p>EM-FPE for Pest Control</p><p>*Margarita Correa, Auroville in India</p><p>15 liters water</p><p>3 kg neem leaves3 kg neem leaves</p><p>250 g selected plant leaves (previous table)</p><p>450 ml EM</p><p>450 ml molasses</p><p>Close tight and ferment 5 days</p><p>Filter and store for 90 days of usage</p><p>Apply diluted 1:500</p></li><li><p>IMO = Indigenous Microorganisms</p><p>Korean Natural Farming: IndigenousMicroorganisms and Vital Power ofCrop/Livestock</p><p>Han Kyu Cho and Atsushi KoyamaHan Kyu Cho and Atsushi Koyama</p><p>Korean Natural Farming Association, 1997.172 p.</p></li><li><p>Chos Global Natural Farming (IMO)</p><p>IMO = No. 1, No. 2, No. 3</p><p>FFJ = Fermented Fruit Juice</p><p>FPJ = Fermented Plant Juice</p><p>FFJ = Fermented Fruit JuiceFFJ = Fermented Fruit Juice</p><p>FAA = Fish Amino Acid</p><p>LAS = Lactic Acid Bacteria Serum</p><p>OHN = Oriental Herbal Nutrients</p><p>BRV = Brown Rice Vinegar</p></li><li><p>Farm bamboo for multi-purpose agroforestry: IMO microbial culture</p></li><li><p>Bamboo leaf mulch and root exudates: IMO microbial culture</p></li><li><p>Farm-made Biofertilizers: Managing forFermentative Substrate &amp; MicrobialCulture</p><p>Substrate (Raw Organic Biomass)</p><p>+ Microbes (Local or Purchased)</p><p>+ Microbial Food Source (Sugar)+ Microbial Food Source (Sugar)</p><p>= Fermentation &amp; Extraction</p><p>= Bioavailable Nutrients</p><p>= Bioactive Substances</p><p>= Beneficial Microbes</p></li><li><p>Fermented Plant Juice (IMO) from Kerr Center herbs</p><p>Bioavailable nutrients + Bioactive substances + Beneficial microbes</p></li><li><p>Summary for 1st afternoon seminar, ResilientFarmer 2013 workshop:</p><p>1. Microorganisms perform multiple functionsand produce beneficial substances (enzymes,organic acids, hormones, anti-oxidants)</p><p>2. Managing SOM and thereby soil foodweb2. Managing SOM and thereby soil foodwebhabitat is the fundamental approach to soilhealth (plus soil testing and minerals)</p><p>3. Microbial inoculants are multi-purpose tools</p><p>4. EM and IMO are easy-to-use fermentativemicrobial systems with multiple on-farm uses</p></li><li><p>Thank You!Kerr Center for Sustainable Agriculture</p><p>and USDA-NRCS Conservation Innovation</p><p>Steve Diver, M.Sc.Agri-Horticultural Consulting</p><p>www.agri-synergy.comsteved@ipa.net</p></li></ul>

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