methods in biogeochemistry of wetlands ?· methods in biogeochemistry of wetlands r.d. delaune,...

Download Methods in Biogeochemistry of Wetlands ?· Methods in Biogeochemistry of Wetlands R.D. DeLaune, ...…

Post on 03-Sep-2018

212 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Methods in Biogeochemistry of Wetlands

    R.D. DeLaune, K.R. Reddy, C.J. Richardson, and J.P. Megonigal, editors

    Book and Multimedia Publishing CommitteeApril Ulery, ChairWarren Dick, ASA Editor-in-ChiefE. Charles Brummer, CSSA Editor-in-ChiefAndrew Sharpley, SSSA Editor-in-ChiefLajpat Ahuja Michael Casler David Clay Kimberly Cook David Fang Girisha GanjegunteRobert Graham Zhongqi He Srirama Krishna Reddy Shuyu Liu Sally Logsdon Thomas Mueller Mary Savin Nooreldeen Shawqi Ali Gurpal Toor Director of Publications: Mark MandelbaumManaging Editor: Lisa Al-AmoodiBooks Acquisitions Editor: Nicole Sandler

    Number 10 in the Soil Science Society of America Book SeriesSally Logsdon, series editorPublished by Soil Science Society of America, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA

  • Copyright 2013 by Soil Science Society of America

    ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

    The views expressed in this publication represent those of the individual Editors and Authors. These views do not necessarily reflect endorsement by the Publisher(s). In addition, trade names are sometimes mentioned in this publication. No endorsement of these products by the Publisher(s) is intended, nor is any criticism implied of similar products not mentioned.

    Soil Science Society of America, Inc.5585 Guilford Road, Madison, WI 53711-5801 USA

    soils.orgdl.sciencesocieties.orgSocietyStore.org

    ISBN: 978-0-89118-960-2 (print) ISBN: 978-0-89118-961-9 (electronic)doi:10.2136/sssabookser10Library of Congress Control Number: 2013951552

    SSSA Book Series ISSN: 2163-2804 (online)ISSN: 1047-4986 (print)

    Cover design: Patricia ScullionCover photo: A small stand of pond cypress [Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.] displaying their fall colors prior to leaf drop on the shore of a dystrophic Carolina Bay Lake Wetland complex in Jones Lake State Park in Bladen county, NC. Photograph by Dr. Curtis J. Richardson, Director of the Duke University Wetland Center, Durham, NC.

    Printed in the United States of America.

  • v

    ContentsForeword xiiPreface xiiiContributors xv

    Chapter 1Issues of Sampling Design in Wetlands 1

    Monica Rivas Casado, Ron Corstanje, Pat Bellamy, and Ben MarchantDESIGN-BASED SAMPLING APPROACHES 8MODEL-BASED SAMPLING APPROACHES 11

    Chapter 2Soil and Sediment Sampling of Inundated Environments 21

    Todd Z. Osborne and R.D. DeLauneSAMPLING IN INUNDATED ENVIRONMENTS: SAMPLING PLAN AND GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 22SAMPLING METHODS FOR INUNDATION DEPTHS LESS THAN 1.5 METERS 26SAMPLING METHODS FOR INUNDATION DEPTHS GREATER THAN 1.5 METERS 32SPECIAL CONDITIONS OR CONSIDERATIONS 36

    Chapter 3Physicochemical Characterization of Wetland Soils 41

    K.R. Reddy, M.W. Clark, R.D. DeLaune, and M. KongchumSOIL SAMPLING 42PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES 43CONCLUSIONS 52

    Chapter 4Soil Pore Water Sampling Methods 55

    M.M. Fisher and K.R. ReddyTECHNIQUES FOR SAMPLING SOIL PORE WATER 56SAMPLE HANDLING CONSIDERATIONS 64SAMPLING PORE WATER GASES 66SUMMARY 68

    Chapter 5ReductionOxidation Potential and Oxygen 71

    J. Patrick Megonigal and Martin RabenhorstREDOX POTENTIAL THEORY 73OXYGEN MEASUREMENT WITH DIFFUSION CHAMBERS 73REDOX MEASUREMENT 78

    Chapter 6Determination of Dissolved Oxygen, Hydrogen Sulfide, Iron(II), and Manganese(II) in Wetland Pore Waters 87

    George W. Luther III and Andrew S. MadisonEXPERIMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRODE FABRICATION 91EXPERIMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF WORKING ELECTRODE CALIBRATIONS 96PROCEDURES FOR MICROPROFILING 101SUMMARY 104

    Chapter 7Soil Redox Potential and pH Controllers 107

    Kewei Yu and Jrg RinklebeREDOX POTENTIAL AND pH CONTROL 108MODIFICATIONS 110AN AUTOMATED BIOGEOCHEMICAL MICROCOSM SYSTEM 112APPLICATIONS 114

  • vi

    Chapter 8Morphological Methods to Characterize Hydric Soils 117

    M.J. VepraskasEQUIPMENT 120METHODS AND TECHNIQUES FOR DESCRIBING HYDRIC SOILS 122FIELD TEST TO ASSESS SOIL MATERIAL TYPE 124IDENTIFYING HYDRIC SOIL FIELD INDICATORS 132

    Chapter 9Emergent Macrophyte Biomass Production 137

    Christopher CraftSAMPLING CONSIDERATIONS 139INDIRECT METHODS 139DIRECT METHODS 144EMERGING METHODS 151

    Chapter 10Photosynthetic Measurements in Wetlands 155

    S.R. PezeshkiOXYGEN EXCHANGE MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE 157CARBON ISOTOPE TECHNIQUE 158MICROMETEOROLOGICAL TECHNIQUE 159CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE METHOD 161PHOTOSYNTHETIC MEASUREMENTS USING CHAMBERS 165SUMMARY 173

    Chapter 11Gas Transport and Exchange through Wetland Plant Aerenchyma 177

    Brian K. Sorrell and Hans BrixGENERAL PRINCIPLES 178EXPERIMENTAL PRINCIPLES 180LABORATORY AND GLASSHOUSE CHAMBERS 184MODELING APPROACHES 190

    Chapter 12A Primer on Sampling Plant Communities in Wetlands 197

    Curtis J. Richardson and Ryan S. KingOVERVIEW OF SAMPLING PLANT POPULATIONS AND COMMUNITIES 199SAMPLE SIZE 200PLANT SAMPLING APPROACHES 203RAPID ASSESSMENT APPROACHES TO ESTIMATE PLANT ABUNDANCE AND COVER PERCENTAGE 206PLANT SAMPLING METHODS AND CALCULATION PROCEDURES 207ANALYSIS OF DATA 211COMPARISON OF PLANT COMMUNITIES 212SUGGESTIONS FOR DEVELOPING A PLANT SAMPLING PROGRAM 215APPENDIX 218

    Chapter 13Plant ProductivityBottomland Hardwood Forests 225

    William H. Conner and Julia A. CherryABOVEGROUND PRODUCTIVITY 228BELOWGROUND PRODUCTIVITY 234

    Chapter 14 Current Methods to Evaluate Net Primary Production and Carbon Budgets in Mangrove Forests 243

    Victor H. Rivera-Monroy, Edward Castaeda-Moya, Jordan G. Barr, Vic Engel, Jose D. Fuentes, Tiffany G. Troxler, Robert R. Twilley, Steven Bouillon, Thomas J. Smith III, and Thomas L. OHalloran

    CURRENT METHODS TO ESTIMATE NET PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY 245COMPARING MANGROVE NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION ESTIMATES TO WHOLE-FOREST CARBON FLUX MEASUREMENTS 263SUMMARY AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS 275APPENDIX 276

  • vii contents

    Chapter 15Characterization of Wetland Soil Organic Matter 289

    Robert L. Cook and Thomas S. BianchiSAMPLE TREATMENT AND PROCESSING 290SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION 292BULK ELEMENTAL AND CHEMICAL BIOMARKER ANALYSES 301SUMMARY 309

    Chapter 16Dissolved Organic Matter 317

    Robert G. QuallsEQUIPMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION 321MATERIALS AND REAGENTS 321SAMPLE PREPARATION 323PROCEDURES 323CONCLUSIONS 327

    Chapter 17Soil Microbial Biomass and Phospholipid Fatty Acids 331

    Jrg Rinklebe and Uwe LangerTHE SUBSTRATE-INDUCED RESPIRATION METHOD 333PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACIDS 338ESTIMATES OF MICROBIAL BIOMASS 343SUMMARY 343

    Chapter 18Molecular Genetic Analysis of Wetland Soils 349

    Hee-Sung Bae and Andrew V. OgramDNA EXTRACTION 350QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION 354POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION BASED MOLECULAR CLONING 362

    Chapter 19Enzyme Activities 373

    Hojeong Kang, Seon-Young Kim, and Chris FreemanEQUIPMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION 376MATERIALS AND REAGENTS 376SAMPLE PREPARATION 377PROCEDURE 377CALCULATION 377SUMMARY 378

    Chapter 20Organic Matter Mineralization and Decomposition 385

    Scott D. Bridgham and Rongzhong YeLITTER DECOMPOSITION 386DECOMPOSITION OF STANDARD SUBSTRATES 393SOIL HETEROTROPHIC RESPIRATION 393PHOTODEGRADATION 403

    Chapter 21Methanogenesis and Methane Oxidation in Wetland Soils 407

    Kanika S. Inglett, Jeffery P. Chanton, and Patrick W. InglettEXPERIMENTAL METHANE MEASUREMENTS 409ISOTOPIC MEASUREMENTS OF METHANE 417

    Chapter 22Greenhouse Gas Emission by Static Chamber and Eddy Flux Methods 427

    Kewei Yu, April Hiscox, and R.D. DeLauneSTATIC CHAMBER MEASUREMENT 428EDDY COVARIANCE MEASUREMENT 432SUMMARY 436

  • viii

    Chapter 23Characterization of Organic Nitrogen in Wetlands 439

    C.M. VanZomeren, H. Knicker, W.T. Cooper, and K.R. ReddyCHEMICAL FRACTIONATION OF SOIL ORGANIC NITROGEN 440CHLOROFORM FUMIGATION METHOD 446NUCLEAR RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY 448MASS SPECTROMETRY OF ORGANIC NITROGEN 454CONCLUSIONS 458

    Chapter 24Measurements of Nitrogen Mineralization Potential in Wetland Soils 465

    Eric D. Roy and John R. WhitePOTENTIALLY MINERALIZABLE NITROGEN 467SUBSTRATE-INDUCED NITROGEN MINERALIZATION 469LIMITATIONS 470SUMMARY 471

    Chapter 25Wind Tunnel Method for Measurement of Ammonia Volatilization 473

    M.E. Poach, K.S. Ro, and P.G. HuntEQUIPMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION 476MATERIALS AND REAGENTS 479SAMPLE PREPARATION 479PROCEDURE 480SAMPLE ANALYSIS 480CALCULATION 481STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 481QUALITY ASSURANCE 481SUMMARY 482

    Chapter 26Ammonium Oxidation in Wetland Soils 485

    K.S. Inglett, A.V. Ogram, and K.R. ReddyAEROBIC AMMONIUM OXIDATION (NITRIFICATION) 486ANAEROBIC AMMONIUM OXIDATION (ANAMMOX) 488METHODS FOR ASSESSING AEROBIC AMMONIUM OXIDATION (NITRIFICATION) 489METHODS FOR ASSESSING ANAEROBIC AMMONIUM OXIDATION (ANAMMOX) POTENTIAL 492MOLECULAR METHODS FOR ASSESSING AMMONIUM OXDIATION IN WETLAND SOILS 494SUMMARY 497

    Chapter 27Denitrification Measurement Using Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry 503

    Patrick W. Inglett, Todd M. Kana, and Soonmo AnGENERAL PRINCIPLES 504EXPERIMENTAL PRINCIPLES 505ISOTOPE PAIRING BY THE MIMS METHOD 510SUMMARY 516

    Chapter 28Nitrate Reduction, Denitrification, and Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction to Ammonium in Wetland Sediments 519

    Amy J. Burgin, Stephen K. Hamilton, Wayne S. Gardner, and Mark J. McCarthyEQUIPMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION 521MATERIALS AND REAGENTS 524PROCEDURES 525SAMPLE PREPARATION 530CALCULATIONS 533

    Chapter 29System-Level Denitrification Measurement Based on Dissolved Gas Equilibration Theory and Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry 539

    Andrew Laursen and Patrick W. InglettGENERAL THEORY 541EXPERIMENTAL PRINCIPLES 541CALCULATIONS 544DISCUSSION AND LIMITATIONS 549SUMMARY 550

Recommended

View more >