Metaphor Metaphor Metaphor compares two different things by speaking of one in terms of the other. Unlike a simile or analogy, metaphor asserts that one.
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Metaphor Metaphor Metaphor compares two different things by speaking of one in terms of the other. Unlike a simile or analogy, metaphor asserts that one thing is another thing, not just that one is like another. Affliction then is ours; / We are the trees whom shaking fastens more. --George Herbert Slide 2 Synecdoche Synecdoche is a type of metaphor in which the part stands for the whole, the whole for a part, the genus for the species, the species for the genus, the material for the thing made, or in short, any portion, section, or main quality for the whole or the thing itself (or vice versa). Farmer Jones has two hundred head of cattle and three hired hands. Slide 3 Metonymy Metonymy Metonymy is another form of metaphor, very similar to synecdoche (and, in fact, some rhetoricians do not distinguish between the two), in which the thing chosen for the metaphorical image is closely associated with (but not an actual part of) the subject with which it is to be compared. The orders came directly from the White House. Slide 4 Personification Personification metaphorically represents an animal or inanimate object as having human attributes--attributes of form, character, feelings, behavior, and so on. Ideas and abstractions can also be personified. The ship began to creak and protest as it struggled against the rising sea. We bought this house instead of the one on Maple because this one is more friendly. Slide 5 Hyperbole Hyperbole, the counterpart of understatement, deliberately exaggerates conditions for emphasis or effect. There are a thousand reasons why more research is needed on solar energy. Slide 6 Allusion Allusion Allusion is a short, informal reference to a literary work, famous person or event. We had traveled too far into a net of expectations and left no crumbs behind. The Scarlet Ibis Slide 7 Oxymoron Oxymoron is a paradox reduced to two words, usually in an adjective-noun. Jumbo shrimp Act naturally Cold fire Slide 8 Alliteration Alliteration is the recurrence of initial consonant sounds. Done well, alliteration is a satisfying sensation. Slide 9 Onomatopoeia Onomatopoeia Onomatopoeia is the use of words whose pronunciation imitates the sound the word describes. "Buzz," for example, when spoken is intended to resemble the sound of a flying insect. Other examples include these: slam, pow, screech, whirr, crush, sizzle, crunch, wring, wrench, gouge, grind, mangle, bang, blam, pow, zap, fizz, urp, roar, growl, blip, click, whimper, and, of course, snap, crackle, and pop. Slide 10 Apostrophe Apostrophe Apostrophe interrupts the discussion or discourse and addresses directly a person or personified thing, either present or absent. O books who alone are liberal and free, who give to all who ask of you and enfranchise all who serve you faithfully! -- Richard de Bury Slide 11 Assonance: similar vowel sounds repeated in successive or proximate words containing different consonants: A city that is set on a hill cannot be hid. Slide 12 Allegory A multi-layered literary work in which characters, objects, or actions represent distractions. Animal Farm is an allegory. Slide 13 Adage Adage A familiar proverb or wise saying. Slide 14 Analogy Analogy A comparison of two different things that are similar in some way. Foot::leg as hand::arm "His head was like the dome of a cathedral." Slide 15 Clich Clich Overused expression Easy as pie Theres no place like home. Slide 16 Climax Climax Highest point of interest in a literary work Slide 17 Colloquialism Colloquialism Informal words or expressions not acceptable in formal writing Yall wanna get some grub? Slide 18 Conceit Conceit Fanciful extended metaphor Slide 19 Connotation Connotation The implied or associated meaning of a word Brother has many more accepted meanings than a male sibling. Slide 20 Denotation Denotation The literal or dictionary meaning of a word. Slide 21 Dialect Dialect A variety of speech characterized by its own particular grammar of pronunciation, often associated with a particular geographic region. *think To Kill a Mockingbird Slide 22 Dialogue Dialogue Conversation between two or more people Slide 23 Diction Diction Word choice made by a writer Slide 24 Ellipses Ellipses Omission of a word or phrase which is grammatically necessary but can be deduced from context. Some people prefer dogs; others cats. Slide 25 Epiphany Epiphany A moment of sudden revelation Slide 26 Epitaph Epitaph Inscription on tombstone Slide 27 Flashback Flashback Insertion of an earlier event into the normal chronological order Slide 28 Flat Character Flat Character Embodies a single quality; does not develop in the course of the story Slide 29 Foreshadowing Foreshadowing Prepares reader for what is to come next Slide 30 Genre Genre Major category of literature Poetry, fiction, drama Slide 31 Hyperbole Hyperbole Intentional exaggeration for effect Her bag weighed a ton. Slide 32 Idiom Idiom An expression in a given language which cannot be understood in a lteral sense. It was raining cats and dogs. We were in a pickle. Slide 33 Imagery Imagery Using language to create vivid images that appeal to one of the senses. Something is rotten in the state of Denmark. -Hamlet Slide 34 Inference Inference Using evidence to draw a conclusion Slide 35 Irony Irony Incongruity between what happens and what is expected to happen It was ironic that the kids wished Miss Brown many more happy birthdays when she would not live to see another one. Slide 36 Jargon Jargon Specialized language Doctors: stethoscope, malpractice, scalpel Auto Mechanics: carburetor, muffler, transmission Slide 37 Juxtaposition Juxtaposition Placing two elements side by side to show contrast Romeo and Juliet is full of structural juxtapositions between light and dark and between age and youth. Slide 38 Metaphor Metaphor Direct comparison of two unlike things All the worlds a stage Slide 39 Metonymy Metonymy Substituting the name of one object for another closely associated The pen is mightier than the sword. Slide 40 Mood Mood Emotional atmosphere of a work *the readers side Slide 41 Tone Tone The attitude a writer has toward his subject *writers side Slide 42 Narrator Narrator Who tells the story Slide 43 Parallelism Parallelism The use of corresponding syntactical forms (creating balance in the sentence) We added the milk, beat the eggs, and sifted the flour. Slide 44 Paraphrase Paraphrase Restatement of text in a different form Slide 45 Parody Parody Humorous interpretation of a serious work Slide 46 Pun Pun A play on words Slide 47 Round Character Round Character A character who develops or changes throughout the course of a work Slide 48 Satire Satire Use of humor to point out imperfections in people or social institutions Slide 49 Simile Simile Like is like a box of chocolates Slide 50 Setting Setting Time, place, and environment Slide 51 Symbol Symbol Stands for itself as well as something outside itself Slide 52 Syntax Syntax How words are arranged in sentences Subject + Verb Prepositional Phrase + Subject + Verb Subject + Verb + Direct Object Slide 53 Theme Theme The central idea of a work of literature Slide 54 Thesis Thesis The primary position taken by a speaker or writer Slide 55 Tragedy Tragedy Protagonist engaged in a struggle which ends in destruction or ruin Romeo and Juliet Slide 56 Understatement Understatement Deliberate under-emphasis