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  • Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology I www.hzdr.de/hif

    Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Markus A. Reuter

    Metallurgical Internet-of-Thingsm-IoT

    Markus A. Reuter

  • Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Markus A. Reuter

    Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology

    Page 2

    Metallurgy enables the CE An opportunity

    CE: Circular Economy

    Circular Economy within a Corporation

    m-IoT: Metallurgical Internet-of-Things

    Metallurgical infrastructure and knowhow are of key

    importance

    CEE: Circular Economy Engineering

    Digitalized linking of stakeholders

    Quantifying resource efficiency

    Informing society in an understandable CE-paradigm

  • Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Markus A. Reuter

    Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology

    Page 3

    http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/news-room/20151201STO05603/Circular-economy-the-importance-of-re-using-products-and-materials

    Circular Economy: CEUnderstanding & quantification of entropy in the CE

    http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/news-room/20151201STO05603/Circular-economy-the-importance-of-re-using-products-and-materials

  • Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Markus A. Reuter

    Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology

    Page 4

    (65)

    CE: Product Centric Recycling

  • Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Markus A. Reuter

    Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology

    Page 5

    MARASB.V.

    A+++ GF

    E

    A DCB

    A+

    A++

    RecyclingIndex(c)MARAS

    LED1

    LED3

    LED2

    Is sustainable considering both energyand materials for LED lamp designs?

    M.A. Reuter, A. van Schaik (2016): Strategic metal recycling: adaptive metallurgical processing infrastructure and technology are essential for a Circular

    Economy, RESPONSABILITE & ENVIRONNEMENT - AVRIL 2016 - N82, pp. 62-66.

  • Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Markus A. Reuter

    Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology

    Page 6

    Au

    Cu

    Ta

    CE: A key issue of recycling

  • Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Markus A. Reuter

    Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology

    Page 7

    Different appearances of PCB in (PCB) recyclates

    CE: Complexity & creating entropyRequires detail of particles to be able to optimize and & simulate

    Ferrous recyclate PCB recyclate Plastics recyclate Residue fraction

  • M.A. Reuter, A. van Schaik, O. Ignatenko (2006): Fundamental limits for the recycling of end-of-life vehicles, Minerals Engineering, 19(5), 433-449.

    UNEP, 2013: Reuter (LEAD AUTHOR), United Nations Environmental Protection (UNEP) Report Metal Recycling: Opportunities Limits Infrastructure report:

    http://www.unep.org/resourcepanel/Publications/MetalRecycling/tabid/106143/Default.aspx

    http://www.unep.org/resourcepanel/Publications/MetalRecycling/tabid/106143/Default.aspx

  • Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Markus A. Reuter

    Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology

    Page 9

    CE: Optimization, Simulation, Big-dataReal-time data and evaluation of the complete chain

  • Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Markus A. Reuter

    Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology

    Page 10

    CE: Processing infrastructureSecondary Feeds

    (Low & High grade Cu materials & alloys, WEEE - PMs (Au) & PGMs containing residues & scrap, shredder residue)

    Raw / Anode Copper

    FuelAir (Oxygen)

    Discard Slag (Construction Material)

    Dust/Fume

    ReductantFlux

    Cathode Copper

    Pb/Sn/Bi/Ag Products

    Zn

    PGMsPMs

    Gypsum

    Te, Seetc.

    Intermediate Pb-Rich PhasesFumes

    Slimes

    SlimesPrecipitates

    (Pb/Sn rich)

    (Zn rich)

    Slimes

    1-3 Stage TSL

    Electrowinning & -RefiningPrecious Metal

    Refining

    Smelting/Refining

    Leaching

    Offgas treatment

    Leaching

  • Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Markus A. Reuter

    Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology

    Page 11

    CE: Processing infrastructure Lead concentrates and residues YTCL (China) & KCM (Bulgaria)

  • Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Markus A. Reuter

    Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology

    Page 12

  • Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Markus A. Reuter

    Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology

    Page 13

    CE: Metallurgy a key enablerhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0WE72HB7asY

    EU Supported Event in Brussels October 2015

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0WE72HB7asY

  • Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Markus A. Reuter

    Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology

    Page 14

    Metallurgical Internet-of-Things: m-IoT

    Product Design

    Remanufacture

    Functional Metal &

    Material Combinations

    Multi-material Recyclates

    Losses

    Losses & Stocks

    Losses

    Complex Linkages/Connections

    Unaccounted

    Losses & Theft

    Stocks & Losses

    Particle Properties Controls

    Losses

    URBAN MINEDesigner Minerals and Functional Materials (Au containing)

    GEOLOGICAL MINEGeological Minerals (Au containing)

    Fe

    C Ca

    Al Cr

    V SiMg Ti

    W H/O

    Li

    Zr Ta NbAs

    P

    K

    REE

    Ce

    U

    Mn

    CuZn Sn Pb

    Co

    Ni

    Mo

    AuPt

    Ga Ge AgInTeSe

    Os

    Ru Bi

    Sb

    Ru Pd Ir RhCd

    Collection, Dismantling, Shredding

    Recycling

    Index

    Physical Separation

    Pyro- & hydrometallurgy, Refining)

    Product Complexity

    Market & Stocks

  • Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Markus A. Reuter

    Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology

    Page 15

    M-IoT: Metallurgical Internet-of-Things

    Slag (low Pb)

    BULLION

    Horizontal Bath(QSL, KIVCET, SKS 2

    stage)

    Discard Slag and Steam

    Fume Leaching

    Plant

    FeedsPb Concentrates

    Pb Secondaries (e.g. battery)

    Ag Concentrate

    RefineryCu, PMs, PGMs, various others

    Pb Residue

    FumeZn/Pb (In/Ge..)

    Jarosite

    Goethite

    (old ponds /

    production)

    Fume

    RefineryPb, Sn, Sb, Te, Se, In

    Vertical

    Bath(TSL 1,2 & 3

    stage)

    1 or 2

    TSL(s)

    Cu TSL

    Processing

    Zn-Fumers

    Cu Speiss

    Zn

    Solution

    Cu Removal

    RefineryAu, Ag, Cu, Sb, As, Ge

    Zn & Refinery ProductsBy-products: In, Ge etc.

    Cu Speiss

    Circuit Boards

    etc.

    Precious Metal

    RefineryLeached

    Residue

    Pb Refinery

    BULLION

    BULLION

    Cu Dross

    Pb Slime

    Residue

    Ag

    Concentrate

    Horizontal Bath

    (SKS 1 stage)

    Blast

    Furnace

    Waelz Kiln

    Slag

    Fume

    Zn/Pb (In/Ge..)

    Fumer

    Fume (Zn rich, Pb, In, Ge)

    Slag(high Pb)

    Discard

    Slag

    H2SO4

    H2SO4H2SO4

    Discard

    Slag

    Zn PlantVarious configurations

    (Figure 2)

    Direct Zn(TSL 2 stage)

    FeedsZn Concentrates

    Washed/roasted secondaries

    fumes (e.g. EAF dust)

    Pb/Speiss

    To lead plants

    Rotary

    Kiln

    Soda Slag

    Zn-Plasma

    Fumers

    Other

    residues

  • Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Markus A. Reuter

    Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology

    Page 16

    m-IoT: Recovering metals from residues, scrap etc.Lead Concentrates & Zinc residues Nyrstar (Zrich) installing TSL at Port Pirie,

    Australia 2016 (Outotec) 65th Top Submerged Lance furnace

  • Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Markus A. Reuter

    Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology

    Page 17

    m-IoT: Zinc Residue processingXingan China

    Metals

    Recovered

    Zn

    Pb

    Ag

    Cu

    In

    Ge

    Ga

    Sb

    Etc.

  • Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Markus A. Reuter

    Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology

    Page 18

    M-IoT: Understanding metal distributionsM.A.H. Shuva, M.A. Rhamdhani, G. Brooks, S. Masood, M.A. Reuter (2016) Thermodynamics data of valuable elements relevant to e-waste processing

    through primary and secondary copper production - a review, J. Cleaner Production (in press).

  • Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Markus A. Reuter

    Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology

    Page 19

    Circular Economy Engineering - CEE

    I. Rnnlund, M.A. Reuter, S. Horn, J. Aho, M. Pllysaho, L. Ylimki, T. Pursula (2016):

    Sustainability indicator framework implemented in the metallurgical industry:

    Part 1-A comprehensive view and benchmark,

    Part 2-A case study from the copper industry, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment (both in press).

  • Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Markus A. Reuter

    Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology

    Page 20

    CEE: Link CAD & Smelter to Recycling Index

    M.A. Reuter, A. van Schaik, J. Gediga (2015): Simulation-based design for resource efficiency of metal production and recycling systems, Cases: Copper production

    and recycling, eWaste (LED Lamps), Nickel pig iron, International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 20(5), 671-693.

    Productdesign

    LifeCycleAssessment(LCA)

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    Ag

    Al

    Al2O3

    Au

    BaO Ba Bi C

    (C5O

    2H8)n

    C6H

    12Cl3O4P

    C15

    H12

    Br4O2

    (C25

    H30

    O4N

    )n

    C12H

    12O4n

    CaO Co Cr

    Cu

    Fe Mg

    MgO Mn Ni

    Pb

    Pd

    Ru

    REE

    s

    Silico

    ne Si

    SiO2

    Sn

    Sr