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Download Metabolism. Chapter 5 Why Study Metabolism? Classification of bacteria –Oxygen Tolerance –Biochemical reactions Acids, Ammonia, Gases Fermentation Products

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  • Slide 1
  • Metabolism
  • Slide 2
  • Chapter 5 Why Study Metabolism? Classification of bacteria Oxygen Tolerance Biochemical reactions Acids, Ammonia, Gases Fermentation Products Food Products Yogurt, Sour Cream, Bread, Alcohol Commercial Products Citric Acid, Plastics Environmental Cleanup
  • Slide 3
  • Chapter 5 Ying & Yang of Metabolism Metabolism = Anabolism + Catabolism Photosynthesis requires Respiration Respiration requires Photosynthesis Energy Production = Energy Consumption
  • Slide 4
  • Chapter 5 Breakdown Proteins to Amino Acids, Starch to Glucose Synthesis Amino Acids to Proteins, Glucose to Starch
  • Slide 5
  • Chapter 5
  • Slide 6
  • Slide 7
  • Overview of Metabolism Source of Energy (Photo- vs. Chemotroph) Source of Electrons Carrier of Electrons Final Electron Acceptor Source of Carbon (Auto- vs. Heterotroph) Auto- : Carbon Dioxide Hetero- : Organic Compounds
  • Slide 8
  • Chapter 5 Classification based on Metabolism Where microbes get their energy? Sunlight vs. Chemical Photo- vs. Chemo- trophs How do they obtain carbon? Carbon Dioxide (or inorganic cmpds.) vs. Organic Compounds (sugars, amino acids) Auto- vs. Hetero- trophs Examples Photoautotrophs vs. Photoheterotrophs Chemoautotrophs vs. Chemoheterotrophs
  • Slide 9
  • Chapter 5
  • Slide 10
  • Slide 11
  • Types of -trophs
  • Slide 12
  • Chapter 5 Source of Electrons Autotrophs Photosynthesis H 2 O, H 2 S Chemotrophs Organic Compounds Carbohydrates (C H 2 O) Glucose, Lactose, Sucrose, Mannitol, Citrate Amino Acids
  • Slide 13
  • Chapter 5 Electron Carriers Photosynthesis NADP + H to NADPH Respiration NAD + H to NADH FAD + H to FADH Contain Niacin and Riboflavin Vitamins, not stable Cant store these molecules
  • Slide 14
  • Chapter 5 Final Electron Acceptor Photosynthesis CO 2 + Hs to CH 2 O Stores energy Respiration Aerobic 1/2 O 2 + H 2 to H 2 O Anaerobic Fermentation
  • Slide 15
  • Chapter 5 Movement of Electrons Chemical reactions Oxidation Reactions Reduction Reactions Reactions Coupled Redox reactions
  • Slide 16
  • Chapter 5
  • Slide 17
  • Example of Redox Equations
  • Slide 18
  • Chapter 5 Example of Redox Equations
  • Slide 19
  • Chapter 5 Example of Redox Equations
  • Slide 20
  • Chapter 5 Examples ATP ADP + P Oxidation, release energy ADP + P ATP Reduction, stores energy NAD + H NADH FADH FAD + H NH 4 + 1 1/ 2 O 2 NO 2 - +H 2 O + 2H + ATP 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O
  • Slide 21
  • Chapter 5 Examples Cellular Respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6H 2 O + 6CO 2 + 38 ATP Photosynthesis 6H 2 O + 6CO 2 + light C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Nitrification NH 4 NO 2 to NO 3 Ammonia to Nitrite to Nitrate Ammonification N 2 NH 4
  • Slide 22
  • Chapter 5 Respiration Overview; Glucose to Carbon dioxide + Water +Energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + 38 ATP Glucose is highly reduced; contains energy Oxygen receives the electrons to form energy 4 separate reactions Glycolysis, Transition Reaction, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport, Chemiosomosis Requires Oxygen
  • Slide 23
  • Chapter 5 Steps in Respiration Electron Donors Organic Compounds (Glucose preferred) Electron Carriers NAD to NADH FAD to FADH Electron Acceptors-Terminal O 2 to H 2 O Phosphorylation Reactions ADP to ATP Chemiosmosis Reactions
  • Slide 24
  • Chapter 5 Glycolysis- 10 steps Glucose is Phosphorylated to form Fructose 1,6-diphosphate Split to form 2 Glyceraldehyde 3- phosphate Final Products are: 2 Pyruvic Acid (C 3 H 4 O 3 ) Compare to original glucose - C 6 H 12 O 6 2 NADH 2 ATP
  • Slide 25
  • Chapter 5
  • Slide 26
  • Transition Reaction Pyruvic Acid Acetyl - Co A + CO 2 + NADH C 2 H 4 O 2
  • Slide 27
  • Chapter 5 Krebs Cycle Figure E.3, A29 Acetyl CoA Carbon Dioxide C 2 H 4 O 2 to CO 2 Energy produced/Acetyl CoA (x2 for /Glucose) 3 NADH 1 FADH 1 ATP Metabolic Wheel Fats, amino acids, etc. enter or leave Citrate is product of first reaction Simmons Citrate Media
  • Slide 28
  • Chapter 5 Electron Transport Chain NADH oxidized to NAD FAD reduced to FADH Cytochromes shuffle electrons finally to O 2 Cytochrome Oxidase important in G - ID H 2 O formed and ATP 3 ATP / 1 NADH 2 ATP / 1 FADH
  • Slide 29
  • Chapter 5
  • Slide 30
  • Slide 31
  • Slide 32
  • Slide 33
  • Fermentation Products from Pyruvate Homolactic = Lactic Acid Yogurt, Lactobacillus Alcohol + CO 2 Propionic Acid Butyric Acid Acetic Acid Succinic Acid Butylene to Acetoin basis for VP Test (Vogues-Proskauer)
  • Slide 34
  • Chapter 5 Fermentation Products Alcohol and Carbon Dioxide Yeast mostly Lactic Acid Humans, muscles without oxygen Bacteria (Lactobacillus-yogurt) Butyric Acid Rancid butter, Clostridium-gangrene Acetoin Butanediol fermentation in Klebsiella Propionic Acid Swiss Cheese
  • Slide 35
  • Chapter 5 Fermentation in Yeast
  • Slide 36
  • Chapter 5 Fermentation in Muscle
  • Slide 37
  • Chapter 5
  • Slide 38
  • Slide 39
  • Photosynthesis Plants CO 2 + H 2 O + Light C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 Water is split to release electrons Bacteria H 2 S is used not water Sulfur or Sulfuric Acid formed Oxygen not released Chlorophyll is different Strict Anaerobe Purple & Green Sulfur Bacteria
  • Slide 40
  • Chapter 5 Chemiosmosis Production of ATP in Electron Transport Electrochemical Gradient Formed between membranes H+ (Protons) generated from NADH Electrical Force (+) & pH Force (Acid) Gradient formed ATPase enzyme that channels H+ from High to Low concentration 3 ATP/NADH 2 ATP/NADH
  • Slide 41
  • Chapter 5
  • Slide 42
  • Summary of Respiration Aerobic Respiration Glycolysis Transition Rx. Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Anaerobic Respiration Pyruvate Lactic Acid Mixed Acids Alcohol + CO 2 Recycle NADH 2 ATP / Glucose

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