merck chemicals - 100 years of liquid crystals at merck

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100 Years of Liquid Crystals at Merck


  • 1. 100 Years of Liquid Crystals at Merck Dr. Peer Kirsch Merck KGaA, Liquid Crystals Division, D-64271 Darmstadt, Germany 20th International Liquid Crystal Conference (ILCC-20), Ljubljana, Slovenia, July 4-9, 2004
  • 2. H F F F R H O F H Active Matrix Display (AMD) R OEt F commercial production: 1989 H F F F concept: B. J. Lechner, 1971 H R F H Super Fluorinated Materials (SFM), 1985 F Super Twisted Nematic (STN) R CN R. Eidenschink et al., 1976 T. J. Scheffer et al., 1984 O CN R D. Demus et al., 1975 Twisted Nematic Mode (TN) O M. Schadt, W. Helfrich, R CN G. W. Gray et al., 1972 J. Fergason, 1971 O RO Dynamic Scattering (DSM) RO N N R R. Williams, G. Heilmeier, 1962 N R H3C H3C H H H PhCOO F. Reinitzer, 1888
  • 3. Vertical Alignment (VA) LCD TV commercial production: 1998 2002 In Plane Switching (IPS) Cellular Phone 2000 commercial production: 1996 PDA Active Matrix Display (AMD) commercial production: 1989 Desktop PC Monitor concept: B. J. Lechner, 1971 1997 Super Twisted Nematic (STN) Notebook PC T. J. Scheffer et al., 1984 1990 1995 Twisted Nematic Mode (TN) M. Schadt, W. Helfrich, Wristwatches J. Fergason, 1971 Pocket Calculators Dynamic Scattering (DSM) R. Williams, G.Heilmeier, 1962 1973
  • 4. The Pioneers - 1 F. Reinitzer (Prague), 1888 H3C H3C H O H H O C 145 N* 179 I F. Reinitzer, Monatsh. Chem. 1888, 9, 421 Dr. Peer Kirsch ILCC-20 Page 4
  • 5. The Pioneers - 2 O. Lehmann (Karlsruhe), 1889 "Apparently living crystals" are mesophases: a new and distinct state of matter Lehmann asks Merck in 1904 to provide liquid crystals for research Dr. Peer Kirsch ILCC-20 Page 5
  • 6. The Pioneers - 3 D. Vorlnder (Halle), early 1900s Systematic study on various calamitic liquid crystals O O N N O N N O p-Azoxyphenetole Dr. Peer Kirsch ILCC-20 Page 6
  • 7. Milestones in the History of Merck 1668 Friedrich Jacob Merck (16211678) buys the Engel-Apotheke (Angel Pharmacy) in Darmstadt, Germany 1827 Emanuel Merck (17941855) starts production on an industrial scale Dr. Peer Kirsch ILCC-20 Page 8
  • 8. International Successes and Setbacks On the basis of the international success, local subsidiaries were established in - London (1883) - New York (1887) - Moscow (1899) The New York branch evolved into an independent US Factory in Darmstadt, 1898 company after the World War I: Merck & Co. Dr. Peer Kirsch ILCC-20 Page 9
  • 9. Merck Today Merck groups its operating activities under Merck KGaA, going public in 1995 Shareholders hold 26% of the total capital, the Merck family holds 74% through E. Merck as the general partner. Factory site in Darmstadt, 1995 Dr. Peer Kirsch ILCC-20 Page 10
  • 10. Merck Enters Liquid Crystal Business Since 1904 sale of reagents for liquid crystal research: (Alkyl)ammonium oleates Cholesterol esters p-Azoxybenzoate p-Azophenetole p-Azoxyphenetole p-Azoxyanisole Dr. Peer Kirsch ILCC-20 Page 11
  • 11. The Skeptics "Soft crystals do exist, floating ones may exist, but liquid ones? I tell you, no way!" G. Tammann, around 1920 Dr. Peer Kirsch ILCC-20 Page 12
  • 12. Thermochromic Cholesterics: Applications Use of cholesteric liquid crystals as temperature indicators since 1966, e.g., for Medical diagnostics: mammography, vascular disorders Non-destructive testing: welds, electric circuits Radiation sensing: IR, microwave Decorative: beer labels Dr. Peer Kirsch