membrane receptor types cell membrane g protein receptor channel extracellular signal molecules...

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Bio 449 Lecture 3 Outline Aug. 30, 2008

Membrane receptor types

CellmembraneG proteinReceptorChannelExtracellularsignalmoleculesReceptorEnzymeReceptor-channelReceptor-enzymeG protein-coupled receptorAmplification

ExtracellularfluidIntracellularfluidCellmembraneReceptor-ligand complex activates an amplifier enzyme (AE).Signal moleculeReceptorIntracellularsignal moleculesTarget proteinsIntracellular pathways

alterSignalmoleculeMembrane receptorSignal transduction by proteinsAmplifier enzymesSecond messengermoleculesProtein kinasesIncreaseintracellular Ca2+PhosphorylatedproteinsCalcium-bindingproteinsExtracellularfluidIntracellularfluidCell responseinitiatesbinds toIonchannelSignal moleculeReceptorIntracellularsignal moleculesTarget proteinsResponseCentral Nervous System

Temporal lobeParietal lobeOccipital lobeFrontal lobeANATOMY OF THE BRAINCerebrum Thalamus CerebellumFig. 9-9Central Nervous SystemANATOMY OF THE BRAIN

ThalamusHypothalamusPosterior pituitaryAnteriorpituitary

Fig. 9-10Central Nervous SystemANATOMY OF THE BRAINSTEM

Medullaoblongata ThalamusSpinal cordMidbrainPonsFig. 9-9Central Nervous SystemANATOMY OF THE SPINAL CORD

CerebralhemispheresCerebellumCervical spinalnervesThoracic spinalnervesLumbar spinalnervesSacral spinalnervesFig. 9-4Overall Organization of Nervous System

Fig. 8-1Types of neuronsSensory or afferent neuronInterneuronMotor or efferent neuronTypes of neurons

DendritesAxonDendritesDendritesAxonAxonAxonSchwanncellSomatic sensesSensory or afferent neuronsInterneurons of CNSMotor or efferent neuronsNeurons forsmell and visionAxonterminalFig. 8-3Types of glial cells

GLIAL CELLSformcontainsare found inCentral nervous systemAstrocytesOligodendrocytesMicroglia (modifiedimmune cells)providehelp formsecretetake upcreateScavengersK+, water,neurotransmittersNeurotrophicfactorsBlood-brainbarrierSubstrates forATP productionEpendymalcellsBarriersbetweencompartmentsSource ofneuralstem cellsact ascontainsformPeripheral nervous systemMyelin sheathsSchwann cellsNeurotrophicfactorsSatellitecellsSupportcell bodiessecreteFig. 8-5Glial cells of the CNS

InterneuronsAstrocyteMicrogliaOligodendrocyteCapillaryMyelin(cut)AxonNodeEpendymalcellFig. 8-5Schwann Cells

Cell body 11.5 mm Node of RanvierSchwann cell nucleus

AxonNucleusAxonMyelinSchwann cellFig. 8-6General structure of neurons

DendritesCellbodyNucleusAxon hillockAxon (initialsegment)MyelinsheathSynapsePresynapticaxon terminalPostsynapticneuronSynapticcleftPostsynapticdendriteIntegrationOutputsignalInputsignalFig. 8-2

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