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  • Slide 1
  • Medieval Christianity to the Cluny Reform Movement Monasticism Monasticism Conversions within Europe Conversions within Europe Popular Piety and Personal Religious Practice Popular Piety and Personal Religious Practice Reform Efforts in the 11 th and 12 th Centuries Reform Efforts in the 11 th and 12 th Centuries
  • Slide 2
  • Monasticism Asceticism Asceticism Eastern: St. Anthony of Egypt (@251-356) Celtic: St. Patrick (5 th C.; dies in 490)
  • Slide 3
  • The Temptation of St. Anthony by Bosch St. Anthony of Egypt: Ascetic Monasticism
  • Slide 4
  • Monasticism Asceticism Asceticism Eastern: St. Anthony of Egypt (@251-356) Celtic: St. Patrick (5 th cent.; dies in 490) Communal Communal Celtic: St. Columba (521-597) St. Benedict: Rule for Monasteries (c. 530)
  • Slide 5
  • Celtic Communal Monasticism: St. Columba (521-597) Very ascetic Very ascetic AKA St. Colmcille AKA St. Colmcille Columba founded the Monastery at Iona off coast of Scotland, and his students traveled throughout Europe Columba founded the Monastery at Iona off coast of Scotland, and his students traveled throughout Europe
  • Slide 6
  • St. Benedict of Nursia Rule for Monasteries, (@529-530) Rule for Monasteries, (@529-530) Monastery at Monte Cassino Monastery at Monte Cassino His rule promoted as model for communal monasticism based on prayer, study, and physical labor His rule promoted as model for communal monasticism based on prayer, study, and physical labor
  • Slide 7
  • Monastic Legacy: Sacred Texts The Book of Kells (Ireland)
  • Slide 8
  • Monasticism Asceticism Asceticism Eastern: St. Anthony of Egypt (c. 251-356) Celtic: St. Patrick (5 th cent., dies in 490) Communal Communal Celtic: St. Columba (521-597) St. Benedict: Rule for Monasteries (c. 530) Other Members of the Clergy: The Secular Clergy Other Members of the Clergy: The Secular Clergy
  • Slide 9
  • Christian Conversions in Europe Methods Methods By the Sword: Role of the papal alliance with the Franks
  • Slide 10
  • The Conversion of Clovis (c. 495) by St. Remi at Reims
  • Slide 11
  • Christian Conversions in Europe Methods Methods By the Sword: Role of the papal alliance with the Franks By the Cross: missionaries and monks: St. Boniface (680-754) St. Boniface (680-754) Results: Syncretic Christianity
  • Slide 12
  • Medieval Christianity to the Cluny Reform Movement Monasticism Monasticism Conversions within Europe Conversions within Europe Popular piety and personal religious practice Popular piety and personal religious practice Reform efforts in the 11 th and 12 th centuries Reform efforts in the 11 th and 12 th centuries
  • Slide 13
  • Popular Piety: Witnessing Syncretic Christianity Calendar Christianity: Holy-Days Calendar Christianity: Holy-Days Followed Pagan/Agricultural Calendar Halloween (All Hallows Eve) Christmas Carnival (Carne vale or goodbye to meat) Easter (St. Jerome Against Vigilantius) Pentecost Veneration of saints Veneration of saints
  • Slide 14
  • Veneration of the Saints Saints of Local Interest Saints of Local Interest Often Individuals who had impact in the area May or may not be officially Canonized by Church Example: Ursula of Cologne
  • Slide 15
  • St. Ursula, Cologne St. Ursula and the 11,000 Virgins St. Ursula and the 11,000 Virgins 4 th c. British princess avoiding marriage to a pagan prince and dies after visit to Rome 4 th c. British princess avoiding marriage to a pagan prince and dies after visit to Rome Legend mixes pagan with Christian Legend mixes pagan with Christian 12 th c. re-emergence 12 th c. re-emergence
  • Slide 16
  • Veneration of the Saints Saints of Local Interest Saints of Local Interest Often Individuals who had impact in the area May not be officially Canonized by Church Example: Ursula of Cologne International Saints International Saints Individuals with wide reputations Generally acknowledged by Church Mary: Mother of Jesus, esply from 11 th c. Mary: Mother of Jesus, esply from 11 th c.
  • Slide 17
  • Popular Piety: Witnessing Syncretic Christianity Calendar Christianity: Holy-Days Calendar Christianity: Holy-Days Veneration of saints Veneration of saints Local or International (Mary) Pilgrimage Pilgrimage
  • Slide 18
  • Pilgrimage Sites associated with Saints or Key Events Sites associated with Saints or Key Events Long and Short Pilgrimages Long and Short Pilgrimages Longer trips could last up to a year Longer trips often performed by or organized by the wealthy/landed classes Financial aid Shorter Trips counted less, but allowed for more participation
  • Slide 19
  • Popular Piety: Witnessing Syncretic Christianity Calendar Christianity: Holy-Days Calendar Christianity: Holy-Days Followed Pagan/Agricultural Calendar Examples: Halloween, Christmas, Carnival, Easter (St. Jerome Against Vigilantius), Pentecost Saint Veneration: Local or International (Mary) Saint Veneration: Local or International (Mary) Pilgrimage Pilgrimage Sites Associated with Saints or Key Events Long and Short Pilgrimages Relic Veneration Relic Veneration
  • Slide 20
  • Relic Veneration Blend of High Church and Low Church Blend of High Church and Low Church Not unique to Christian churches Christian doctrine develops over time: NOT worship of the object itself, but connection to the divine through object associated with a holy person Reliquaries
  • Slide 21
  • Reliquaries with Slivers of the True Cross
  • Slide 22
  • Relic Veneration Blend of High Church and Low Church Blend of High Church and Low Church Not unique to Christian churches Christian doctrine develops over time: NOT worship of the object itself, but connection to the divine through object associated with a holy person Reliquaries Incorporates Veneration of Saints and Magic: Incorporates Veneration of Saints and Magic: Differences between East and West
  • Slide 23
  • The Foot of St. Basil, @4 th C.
  • Slide 24
  • Relic Veneration Blend of High Church and Low Church Blend of High Church and Low Church Not unique to Christian churches Christian doctrine develops over time: NOT worship of the object itself, but connection to the divine through object associated with a holy person Reliquaries Incorporates Veneration of Saints and Magic: Incorporates Veneration of Saints and Magic: Differences between East and West Other Examples Other Examples The True Cross: St. Helena (326) Gregory of Tours
  • Slide 25
  • Discovery of the True Cross, St. Helena (326 CE)
  • Slide 26
  • Veneration of a Relic of the True Cross
  • Slide 27
  • Gregory of Tours (c. 588) Often I heard how even the lamps [at Poitiers] that were lit in front of these relics bubbled up because of the divine power and dripped so much oil that frequently they filled a vessel underneath. But because of the foolishness of my closed mind I was never motivated to believe these stories until that power which is at present being revealed reproved my slow-witted hesitation...
  • Slide 28
  • Clunaic Reforms and Medieval Society Church Reform in the 11 th and 12 th centuries Church Reform in the 11 th and 12 th centuries Papacy of Innocent III Papacy of Innocent III Impact of Emphasis on Spirituality: New Orders Impact of Emphasis on Spirituality: New Orders Medieval Society (c. 1000 1300) Medieval Society (c. 1000 1300)
  • Slide 29
  • Church Reform in the 11 th & 12 th Centuries Practices open to dispute Practices open to dispute Investiture Simony Concubinage (clerical marriage) The Monastery at Cluny (910) The Monastery at Cluny (910) Papal Support: Leo IX and Nicholas II Papal Support: Leo IX and Nicholas II Election Decree (1059) Gregory VII (1073-1085), Henry IV (1056-1106) and the Investiture Conflict Gregory VII (1073-1085), Henry IV (1056-1106) and the Investiture Conflict Canossa (1077) Who won? Concordat of Worms (1122) Concordat of Worms (1122)
  • Slide 30
  • Papacy of Innocent III (1198-1216) Firm believer in papal authority Firm believer in papal authority Built up the Business of the Papacy Built up the Business of the Papacy Added taxes: Peters Pence, Annates Reserved right to forgive certain sins Extended crusades inside Europe to attack Heresy Extended crusades inside Europe to attack Heresy Albigensians (Cathars) in southern France Fourth Lateran Council (1215) Fourth Lateran Council (1215) Established transubstantiation as doctrine Formalized penance and eucharistic requirements
  • Slide 31
  • Sign of Spirituality: New Orders Several Ascetic Orders Founded in 11 th century. Several Ascetic Orders Founded in 11 th century. Carthusians (1084) Cistercians (1098) New Mendicant Orders of 13 th century New Mendicant Orders of 13 th century Friars not monks Franciscans (1210) Dominicans (1216)
  • Slide 32
  • Monastic Reforms: the Cistercians Founded 1098 in Citeaux Robert of Molesme and Benedictine Monks Led by Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153) Return to asceticism and strict discipline Distance from secular society Monasteries in Wilderness
  • Slide 33
  • Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179)
  • Slide 34
  • Francis of Assisi (1182-1226)