Medieval Art - Art History Survey
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DESCRIPTIONAn intro to early medieval art: Christianity, Barbarians, Vikings, illuminated manuscripts, Carolingian era art and architecture, Charlemagne, Sutton Hoo, and more!
- 1.Medieval Art in Europe Art History Survey T, R, 12-1:20PM Professor Paige Prater
2. Mapping the Middle Ages 3. The Middle Ages Medieval vs. Middle Ages vs. Dark Ages 1,000 years 5th century-1500 (end of Roman Empire to Renaissance Early Medieval through early 11th century Romanesque 11th-12th centuries Gothic mid 12th-15th centuriesBarbarians Feudalism: patronage, family/clan ties, personal service/labor for protection 4. Mapping the Middle Ages 5. 5th Century: ROME Roman army abandons Britain (Hadrians Wall) Germanic allies of Rome 410 Rome sacked by Visigoths (Galla Placidia!) 455 Rome sacked by Vandals (after making Carthage headquarters) 476 Ostrogoths deposed the last Roman Emperor Ravenna capital until Byzantine defeat 6. 5th Century: Non-Romans Celts western Europe Germanic peoples Baltic Sea Goths head south around Mediterranean>Roman empire Huns - Central Asia> Western Europe Ostrogoths>Italy Visigoths>Spain Burgundians>Switzerland, Eastern France Franks>Germany, France, Belgium Vandals>Africa, eventually settle in Italy ANIMAL STYLE in the arts 7. Early Medieval Non-Roman peoples Pottery, weaving, woodwork Metals: weapons, tools, jewelry Hunters, fishermen, shepherds, farmers Social organization= tribal/family-based 8. Early Medieval Christianity St. Augustine The City of God 496 Franks convert under Clovis (ruled 481-511) and Burgundian wife, Clotilda French rulers and popes = allies 589 Goths accept Roman Christianity 597 Pope Gregory the Great sends missionaries from Rome to King Ethelbert of Kent (Christian wife, Bertha); Augustine! Monasteries = center of art & learning 9. Eagle Brooch Visigothic, 6th Century, SpainGilt bronze, crystal, garnets, etc. 5 3/8 Cabochon: polished, unfaceted crystal One of a pair 10. Cross - Church of Saint Giulia, Brescia (east of Milan), late 7th-early 9th century Made for western Christian Church Byzantine form Engraved cameos and jewels from ancient world Fake gems (glass) 11. Gummersmark Brooch, Norse, 6th centurySilver gilt height 5 Human, animal, and geometric forms 12. Celts & Anglo-Saxons: Sutton Hoo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dWxcQZBM3eQPurse cover, Suffolk, England, first half of 7th century 13. Page with a Man, Gospel Book of Durrow, second half of 7th century Iona, Scotland OR northern England Ink and tempera on parchment Making of illuminated manuscripts: http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=1aDHJu9J10o 14. Lindisfarne Gospels Matthew,Mark, Luke, and John lines>tiny animal heads contemplation Cross-carpet page introducing the Gospel of Matthew 15. Detail of carpet page 16. Book of Kells, Chi Rho Iota page, late 8th or early 9th century The page introducin g Matthew 17. Detail of Chi Rho page: Cats and Mice with Host Spiritual and practical: good vs. evil, sacred Host free of rodents 18. Book of Kells: Gospels page, folio 27v 19. Book of Kells: Christ Enthroned, folio 32v 20. South Cross, Ahenny County Tipperary, Ireland, 8th century, stone Bosses= broochlike projections Like a reliquary cross 21. Mozarabic Art Muslims in Spain Islamic and Christian exchange 711 Islamic invaders conquer Visigoths in Spain; Moors rule until 1492 732 Charles Martel and Franks keep Muslims out of France Melting-pot of cultures in Spain Mustarib would be Arab 22. Beatus, Abbot of St. Martin, Commentary on the Apocalypse, 8th century Emeterius and Senior Bell tower and scriptorium Colophon last page; provides info about the books production 23. Battle of the bird and the serpent, commentary on the Apocalypse by Beatus and commentary on Daniel by Jerome, (detail)Emeterius and Ende, with scribe Senior July 6, 975 completion Metaphor for triumph of Christ over Satan 24. Carolingian Empire Charles the Great (768-814 ruled) Carolus Magnus (in Latin)dynasty/empire Western Germany France Lombard kingdom-Italy Present-day Belgium and HollandFrankish descent Christian Dec 25, 800 CE Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as Emperor 25. Charlemagnes Objectives Restore Roman Empire Revive arts and learning Benedictine monks/nuns Benedict of Nursia (c. 480-547) Rule for Monasteries EDUCATION Aachen, Germany 26. Chapel Palace at Aachen Octagonal dome Sixteen-sided outer wall Soundless video about Aachen and Lorsch Gospels by Victoria and Albert Museum: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1l31Pp20pUQ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pwIKmKxu614 27. Carolingian Books Exacting editing/copying Alcuin of York Anglo-Saxon scholar; corrected copy of Latin Vulgate Biblestill in use! Majiscules vs. Miniscules NO punctuation or spaces between words! 28. Godescalc Gospel Lectionary; Page with Mark the Evangelist 781-783 Ink, gold, and colors on vellum Commissioned by Charlemagne and Hildegard 29. Coronation Gospels Page with Saint Matthew the Evangelist, early 9th century Roman realistic; placed in Charlemagnes tomb and removed by Emperor Otto III in 1000? 30. Ebbo Gospels, Page with Matthew the Evangelist, 2nd quarter of 9th century Archbishop Ebbo of Reims Louis the Pious, son of Charlemagne (ruled 814-840) childhood friend http://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=eqC8gVxx B-s 31. Utrecht Psalter 2nd quarter of 9th century, Page with Psalm 23 (detail) Old Testament Book of Psalms 32. Lindau Gospels outer cover, 870-880 Carolingian metalwork Monastic workshop under Charles the Bald (840-877) Charlemagnes grandson Raised jewels on mini arcades (light beneath) 33. VIKING ERA Norse seamen - 350 ships Viken people from the coves 1000 Leif Ericksson reached North America Famous attacks: 793 Lindisfarne monastery 795 Iona (off Scotlands west coast) 34. Oseberg Ship, 815-820 35. Picture Stones at Jelling http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxdaLPGoQ9g 36. Urnes Church Portal, 11th century, Norway 11th century doorway; building rebuilt 12th century Syncretism: gripping beasts and Lion of Judah/Christ http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=We6aFOp4zsw 37. Stave Church, Borgund, Norway, 1125-1150 CE Timber architecture Stacked horizontal On end + sillRidgepole Rafter Cruck stave= huge timber 38. Ottonian Europe Saxon dynasty that took over after Charlemagnes grandsons family died out in the 10th century Otto I (936-973 CE) 951 married Lombardian widow, Adelaide 962 crowned emperor by the Pope in 962 CHURCH OVER STATE Otto II (973-983 CE) Otto III (994-1002) 983-994: Adelaide and Theophanu ruled as regents 39. Gero Crucifix 970, Cologne Cathedral, Germany Painted and gilded wood 6 2 40. Page with Christ Washing the Feet of His Disciples, Aachen Gospels of Otto III c. 1000 Ink, gold, and colors, on vellum