medieval and renaissance music. learning intentions/success criteria today we will… examine music...
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- Medieval and Renaissance Music
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- Learning Intentions/Success Criteria Today we will Examine music from the Renaissance period Develop our understanding of music theory We will know if we have been successful if we can Identify and describe the following concepts: Plainchant, Mass, Contrapuntal, Modal, Irregular time, Melisma, Cadence, Canon, A cappella, Augmentation and Diminution Can ridentify musical signs and symbols
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- Task 1 Make a list of the following concepts and write an appropriate definition for each during the lesson. Plainchant, Mass, Contrapuntal, Modal, Irregular time, Melisma, Cadence, Canon, A cappella, Augmentation and Diminution
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- Medieval Period Up to 1450 The earliest music we know. Much of the music was not written down. Monophonic texture. Use of modes (dorian, lydian, etc). Pattern of the Latin words used as the rhythm.
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- Medieval Music During the Medieval period most music was not written down. Composers who did write their music down usually worked for the Catholic Church. The Church could afford to buy the materials the composers would need to write music. People outside the Church were too poor to buy what was needed to compose music. Music notation appeared around the year 900, but it only showed the pitch. It didn't tell you anything about the rhythm. A few hundred years would pass before the notes showed the rhythm.
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- Pope Gregory I As music became more complicated, someone needed to make up some rules for writing down music. That person was Pope Gregory I. Pope Gregory l declared that music be standardized. That means that musicians and composers had to use the same rules when writing and performing their music. This music can still be heard today. It is called Gregorian chant.
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- Plainchant Also known as Plainsong and Gregorian chant. Unaccompanied melody set to words of the Roman Catholic liturgy, such as the Mass. Plainchants are modal and have no regular metre. They follow the rhythm of the Latin words.
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- The Renaissance Period 1400-1600
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- The Renaissance Period 1450-1600 Renaissance means rebirth. This period saw a rebirth in knowledge. Science and the arts were becoming more important. Christopher Columbus discovered America, Michelangelo was painting the Sistine Chapel, William Shakespeare was writing plays and Leonardo da Vinci was making great advancements in art, music and science.
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- Characteristics of the Period Contrapuntal voice parts were given equal importance and share the melody. Imitative polyphony. A cappellaA cappella singing. Growth of instrumental, dance and secular music. Development of musical harmony and use of cadences.
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- Sacred Music
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- Mass The Roman Catholic service of the Mass has had A great influence on the development of music. High mass (Missa Solemnis) has 5 passages of Plainsong (the proper of the Mass) and 5 extended passages (the Ordinary of the Mass)which are often set in an elaborate choral way. The Ordinary is the Section referred to as the Mass in a musical sense.
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- Mass Features of the Mass include Latin text and polyphonic texture, and it is usually sung a cappella. Originally used in church worship, but in later years became a large-scale work for chorus, soloists and orchestra.
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- 5 Main Sections of the Mass Kyrie Lord Have Mercy Gloria Glory be to God on High Credo I believe Sanctus - Holy, holy (often include the Benedictus) Agnus Dei Lamb of God A special setting is the Requiem (Mass for the dead). Think King George Cuts Sandwiches Buttering Always.
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- Instruments of the Renaissance Period Consort of viols
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- Lute Rebec
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- Woodwind Instruments Rackett double reed bass instrument Crumhorn double reed, range of just over an octave Cornett similar to a recorder but played with a trumpet-like mouthpiece.
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- Virginal Clavichord
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- Other Concepts...
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- Word Painting The music is used to describe the words. Listen to As Vesta was from Latmos Hill by Thomas Weelkes. Listen to how word painting is achieved on the following phrases: 1.Running down amain descending scales 2.Two by two two voices 3.Three by three three voices
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- Melisma A melodious flourish of notes sung to a single syllable.
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- Texture Monophonic Homophonic Contrapuntal (polyphonic) Imitation Canon Continuous Texture
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- Augmentation and Diminution AugmentationAugmentation The melody is repeated but the rhythmic values of the notes have been doubled (sounds slower the second time) DiminutionDiminution The melody is repeated but the rhythmic values of the notes have been halved (sounds quicker the second time)
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- Listen to the following excerpt and tick two boxes to describe what you hear: MonophonicAntiphonal HomophonicStrophic Gregorian ChantCredo Madrigal
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- Listen to the following excerpt and tick two boxes to describe what you hear: BallettAntiphonal MotetStrophic Madrigal ProperAyre Through composed
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- Listen to the following excerpt and tick three boxes to describe what you hear: KyrieAnacrusis MotetMelisma DiminutionAntiphonal Augmentation
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- Listen to the following excerpt and tick three boxes to describe what you hear: ImitationSyllabic CredoContrapuntal MadrigalAgnus Dei Augmentation
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- Listen to the following excerpt and tick two boxes to describe what you hear: Simple timeCompound time PavanGalliard OvertureMarch Ballett
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- Listen to the following excerpt and tick two boxes to describe what you hear: AyreConsort of viols Madrigal ProperMotet PavanWord painting Antiphonal
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- Listen to the following excerpt and tick three boxes to describe what you hear: Gregorian chantMass MadrigalMotet ImitationChange from simple to compound Change from time compound to simpletime
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- Listen to the following excerpt and tick three boxes to describe what you hear: TrillGalliard MordentPavan RebecLute Virginal
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- Listen to the following excerpt and tick two boxes to describe what you hear: StrophicWord Painting MotetImitation GalliardHomophonic Madrigal
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- Listen to the following excerpt and tick two boxes to describe what you hear: ModalRebec CrumhornConsort HomophonicImitation Augmentation
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- Listen to the following excerpt and tick three Boxes to describe what you hear: A cappellaMass MordentMelisma RebecMadrigal Diminution
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- Listen to the following excerpt and tick three boxes to describe what you hear: AnthemSanctus Benedictus MotetImitation Verse AnthemModal Madrigal
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- Listen to the following excerpt and tick three boxes to describe what you hear: MadrigalMotet CrumhornAntiphonal HomophonicContrapuntal Clavichord
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- Listen to the following excerpt and tick three boxes to describe what you hear: GalliardMotet CrumhornContrapuntal HomophonicConsort of recorders Consort of viols
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- Listen to the following excerpt and tick two boxes to describe what you hear: CredoMadrigal Agnus DeiGregorian chant HomophonicMotet Modal
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- Prose Question 1 There are three types of madrigals, the madrigal proper, ballett and ayre. The ballett is ________ in form whereas the madrigal proper is ___________. The ballett also contains a _______ refrain. The madrigal proper has a ___________ texture. An ayre is usually __________, often by a ______.
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- Prose Question 2 The Mass is sung in ________. The texture is __________ with many voices singing in _________ of each other. The music is unaccompanied (___________). A motet is sung in _________. It features several voices singing in _________ of each other with a ___________ texture. An anthem is sung in _________ and a ________ features an accompaniment (often the organ).
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- Prose Question 3 When composing a Mass or motet, the composer often splits the choir in two or has more than one choir. He can then create a dialogue between the different voices. This creates an ____________ effect. Two important dances from the Renaissance period were the ________ and _________. The __________ is a slow dance with _______ beats in a bar. This is followed by a __________ which is _______ with ______ beats in a bar.
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- Medieval and Renaissance Music Sacred Music Secular Music Characteristics Instrumental Music
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