medieval and byzantine art

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Medieval and Byzantine Art. 330 AD to 1453 AD Module Three – Review Art 1010 TICE Wasatch High School. KEY WORKS. Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus The Court of Justinian Hagia Sophia Stavelot Triptych Rottgen Pieta Giotto's Lamentation from the Arena Chapel Shiva from the Chola Dynasty. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • 330 AD to 1453 ADModule Three ReviewArt 1010 TICEWasatch High School

  • Sarcophagus of Junius BassusThe Court of JustinianHagia SophiaStavelot TriptychRottgen PietaGiotto's Lamentation from the Arena ChapelShiva from the Chola Dynasty

  • Emperor Theodosius I divided the Roman Empire between his two sons. The eastern half became the Byzantine Empire and the western half, sometimes known as Latin Christendom, devolved into many small countries. The split continued along linguistic, religious, and artistic lines. Greek became the dominant language of the Byzantine Empire and the people practiced Orthodox Christianity. Latin was the unifying language of the West and the people practiced Catholic Christianity.Early Christians were uncomfortable with realistic representations of God, people, and nature. They felt that realistic representations of people and the natural would lead to the worship of images. Early Christian artists moved away from naturalistic representation to counter this fear.The Byzantine Empire strictly governed the kinds of images that could be produced in the empire. Like the early Christians before them, the empire was concerned about the worship of images and that God might punish the empire for improper use of images. This fear turned into a period of violent clashes between those who rejected and supported the use of religious images known as Iconoclasm. After Iconoclasm, religious councils governed the production of images within the empire. Artists were only allowed to represent certain subjects in art and they had to represent them in a traditional way. Artists in the West were not restricted in the kinds of images they could make. They were free to experiment with style, subject matter and media.

  • Byzantine art is the artistic products of the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine Empire as well as the nations and states that inherited culturally from the empire.Many Eastern European states, as well as some Muslim, and eastern Mediterranean, preserved many aspects of the empires culture and art for centuries afterward. Early Byzantine Period: Christianity replaced the gods of antiquity as the official religion.

  • Constantine was well known for being the first Roman Emperor to convert to Christianity.Constantine the Great transferred the ancient imperial capital from Rome to the city of Byzantion (major intersection of the east-west trade).The Emperor renamed the ancient port city Constantinople (The city of Constantine) in his honor, also called New Rome owing to the citys new status as political capital of the Roman Empire.

  • The Hagia Sophia was built for the first time by the emperor Constantine the Great (306-337), but not finished until the end of the reign of his son Constantine II, in 360. In June 20, 404, Hagia Sophia burned down. The rebuilding of the church was left to Theodosius.The church had been burned down again, pillaged and destroyed.Justinian finally rebuilt the church in (Circa 537). It is one of the greatest surviving examples of Byzantine architectureIts interior is decorated with mosaics and marble pillars and coverings of great artistic value.It remained the largest cathedral for 1,000 years after it was built.

  • It is a marble Early Christian sarcophagus used for his burial who died in 359. It has been described as the single most famous piece of early Christian relief sculpture.Junius Bassus was a senator who was in charge of the government of the capital.

  • The carvings are in high relief on three sides of the sarcophagus, allowing for its placement against a wall

    The column and many parts of the figures are carved completely in the round.

  • is a church in Ravenna, Italy, and one of the most important examples of early Christian Byzantine art and architecture in Western Europe.All the mosaics are executed in the Hellenistic-Roman tradition: lively and imaginative, with rich colors and a certain perspective.The church was begun in 527, and completed in 546.

  • Figures are abstract, removed from reality, almost look like symbols.They could all be in a spiritual heavenly realm, feet look like they are floating.The halo around his head gives him the same aspect as Christ. Justinian himself stands in the middle, with soldiers on his right and clergy on his left, emphasizing that Justinian is the leader of both church and state of his empire

  • The resolution of the Iconoclastic controversy in favor of the use of icons ushered in a second flowering of the empire (843-1204)Art and architecture flourished during this period, owing to the empires growing wealth and broad base of affluent patrons.

  • Icons are sacred images representing the saints, Christ, and the Virgin, as well as narrative scenes such as Christs crucifixion.In the early 8th century there erupted a intense controversy in the Orthodox Church over the use of icons in worship and prayer. Those opposed to icons were called iconoclasts. Some people were offended by the kissing of images and the offering of incense and lighting of candles before them. The iconoclasts claimed that icons were being worshipped.Iconoclasm literally means image breaking and refers to a recurring historical impulse to break or destroy images for religious or political purposes. Many monks, nuns, lay people and priests died defending the images of Constantinople, which were torn down by mobs supported by Imperial troops.

  • The Stavelot Triptych is Medieval and a portable altar in gold and enamel intended to protect, honor and display pieces of the True Cross.As well as the masterful goldsmith's work and beauty of the Stavelot Triptych, it remains instructive as a demonstration of the diverging Eastern and Western Christian artistic traditions.Images and ideas are expressed very differently. Eastern Byzantine artists use static, figures frozen in place, silently adoring Christ and the cross. In contrast, the Western artists use narrative storytelling with animated figures acting out dramatic visions, battles and miracles.

  • This is an example of the great art of painting, introducing the technique of drawing accurately from life, which had been neglected for more than two hundred years.This fresco cycle depicts the life of the Virgin and the life of Christ. It is regarded as one of the supreme masterpieces of the Early Renaissance.Giotto's figures are not stylized or elongated and do not follow set Byzantine models. They are solidly three-dimensional, have faces and gestures that are based on close observation, and are clothed not in swirling formalized drapery, but in garments that hang naturally and have form and weight

  • The sculpture is usually made in bronze, with Shiva dancing in an circle of flames, lifting his left leg (or in rare cases, the right leg) and balancing over a demon or dwarf who symbolizes ignorance. It is a well known sculptural symbol in India and popularly used as a symbol of Indian cultureThis image is of his rhythmic play which is the source of all movement within the universe. This is represented by the circular frame surrounding the Lord.The purpose of his dance is to release the souls of all men from the snare of illusion.The place of the dance, which is portrayed as the center of the universe, is actually within the heart.Dancing is seen as an art in which the artist creates are one and the same, thought to evoke the oneness of God and creation.