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    Mediapedia By Greg Albert

    After World War II, Henri Goetz and Pablo Picasso approached Henri Sennelier about creating oil pas-tels for professional artists. (In the 1920s, Sakura had introduced Cray-Pas, the fi rst oil pastels, for students.) Sennelier created a line of richly pigmented pastels with a creamy consistency that set the standard. Other manufacturers followed.

    Oil pastels offer almost instant gratifi cation for the artist. Theyre clean, easy to work with, bright, colorful and long-lasting. In stick form, oil pastels combine the vivid colors of soft pastels with the sturdiness of wax crayons. Although they share characteristics with other media, its best to think of oil pastels as unique.

    Like its dry pastel cousin, oil pastel is a very direct medium. Theres nothing between the hand and the

    surface but the pastel stick. Oil pastels require few spe-cial tools and are readily portable. Unlike dry pastels, theres no dust to deal with and little danger of acciden-tal ingestion. Because oil pastels never really dry com-pletely, they can be worked on without the pressure of short drying times. Great results can be had with oil pastels and a few simple techniques.

    Professional oil pastel sticks may seem expensive at fi rst, but theres little wastage since the colors stay put as applied. Many surfaces suitable for oil pastel are affordable, and no expensive equipment is required.

    What is Mediapedia?Mediapedia is an encyclopedia of art media. Th e Artists Magazine will pro le a di erent medium in each issue for the rest of 2009. Next up: drawing media.

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    FAQsWhat surface should I use?Oil pastel works well on many surfaces. Th e two things to keep in mind when selecting a suitable sur-face are how you plan to store or display the nished artwork and how the surface will react to the oil in the pastel.

    Good quality papers, such as archival, cotton-rag paper or other heavy print-making papers, are excellent surfaces to work on. Pastel or charcoal papers are also good and very popular, although less substantial. Several paper manufacturers o er oil pastel cards, charcoal paper mounted on boards and multimedia board. Oil pastels adhere to glass and metal as well, and you can try sandpaper for some-thing really toothy.

    Oil pastel can also be used on primed canvas (stretched or on a panel) and hardboard. Th e primer has a slightly rough surface that is very receptive to oil pas-tel and is the preferred surface if you are combining oil pastel with other oil-based media.

    Can oil pastels be combined with other paint?Yes, but the resulting work may be less long-lasting. Th e vegetable oils in oil paints will cause an unprimed surface to deteriorate over time. A light sketch in oil paint can be used as an underpainting for oil pastels. Because oil pastels dont dry com-pletely, generally they should be used for the top layer only; oil paint over oil pastel may crack or craze as it dries. Oil pastels can also be used over acrylic or watercolor paintings; watermedia over oil pastels wont adhere.

    Whats the di erence between oil pastels and oil bars?Oil pastels are made with an inert oil such as mineral oil; oil bars and sticks are made with vegetable oils and are essentially oil paints in stick form. Oil pastels never dry completely, whereas oil bars will dry in a way similar to oil paints.

    Whats the best way to store and display oil pastels?Th e best way to store oil pastels on paper is at, in a dust-proof container, pro-tected by glassine sheets (thin paper that is grease- and water-resistant). A at le is ideal but expensive; storage boxes designed for works on paper are good and very practical. Oil pastels on rigid surfaces can be stored upright between pieces of matboard with a glassine sheet against the pastel surface.

    Oil pastels should be displayed under glass with spacers to protect the pastel from dust and damage.

    Can nished oil pastels be protected with xatives?Yes. If you use a xative, use products speci cally formulated for oil pastels. Often several light coats are required; let the surface dry thoroughly between coats. Fixa-tives may alter the colors slightly. Some artists use acrylic gel medium as a varnishnote that any coating applied to a nondrying medium is irreversible. Experiment with practice drawings on various surfaces before exposing a nished work to any xative or protective coating.

    acrylic double-primed cotton canvas

    cold-pressed paper

    hot-pressed paper

    rough paper

    panel primed with gesso

    oil-primed portrait linen

    oil-primed super- ne cotton canvas

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    Oil pastels generally go straight from your hand to the surface, so you can get by without special equipment. This directness is one of the most appealing characteristics of oil pas-tel, but you can also have a lot of fun experimenting with tools and tech-niques. The oil pastelist should have the following in his or her studio:Containers: Keep oil pastel sticks organized in boxes so theyre pro-tected and so you wont have to hunt for the color you want. Good stor-age will keep them cleaner, result-ing in purer colors in your pictures. Inexpensive substitutes for art boxes include tackle boxes and pen trays.Paper towels: Use them for blending, wiping foreign colors from the tips of the sticks and keeping your fi ngers clean.Blending stumps: Use a sanding pad to keep them clean.Brushes: Stencil brushes and bristle brushes are useful for softening edges and blending colors. Cotton swabs: Use these common household items to blend colors.Scraping tools: Palette knives, craft knives, razor blades, wooden sticks and almost any rigid tool can be used to scrape oil pastels to reveal the colors beneath.Solvents: Mineral spirits or Turpenoid can create blend-ing and brushing techniques when youre painting on an appropriate surface.

    Safety and CleanupOil pastels are safer to use than soft pastels because theres no danger of breathing in dust. However, the same toxic pigments used in soft pastels and paintssuch as cadmiumare used in professional oil pastels.

    Take care to remove pigment from your ngers to avoid accidental ingestion. In other wordskeep your hands away from your face. Keep paper towels and deter-gent or baby wipes around to keep your hands clean when working with oil pastels. With some techniques,

    especially scraping, its possible to create small akes of oil pastel, so be careful to remove these particles from tools, clothing and work surfaces.

    Ensure that your workspace has adequate ventilation if youre using solvents such as mineral spirits or Turpenoid.

    Children should use student-grade oil pastels and be properly supervised.

    Must-Have Tools

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    Tips Oil pastels vary in hardness by brand. Keep oil pastel sticks away from heatthey can melt. Use a knife or sanding pad to keep a sharp tip on your pastel sticks. Layering soft oil pastels over hard allows for a greater buildup of color.

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    Underpainting: Oil pastels can be used over a thin underpainting of acrylic, oil or watercolor on primed surfaces. This underpainting can remain visible through subsequent layers.Crosshatching: Strokes of color can be built up with tightly spaced parallel or perpendicular lines.Blending: Oil pastels can be blended and intermixed with paper towels, blending stumps and brushes.Layering and impasto: Oil pastel can be built up in layers or in thick deposits of color. Note that this isnt recom-mended on fl exible surfaces such as stretched canvas, because cracking can occur.Scumbling: Softer oil pastels can be applied in a broken layer over harder pastels with a technique similar to scumbling with paints.Scraping (sgra to): Layered oil pastel can be scraped back with a rigid tool such as a palette knife, razor blade or even combs and plastic forks to reveal the colors underneath.Solvents: Oil pastels can be manipulated with brushes, tissues or cotton swabs dipped in a solvent such as mineral spirits or Turpenoid.

    Techniques

    Greg Albert, author of Th e Simple Secret to Better Painting (North Light Books), lives in Cincinnati, Ohio.

    Oil pastels are made with the same powdered pigments used in soft pastels. Instead of the gum binder used in soft pastels, the pigments in oil pastels are mixed with an inert, non-drying oil, such as mineral oil, and a wax binder. The result is a soft, slightly oily stick; hardness varies by manu-facturer. Once theyre applied, the pigments stay put.

    The oil used in professional-grade pastels is inert, meaning it will not change chemically as would organic oils, such as linseed. Oil pastels never dry completelythey harden over time but remain workable. Student-grade oil pastels may be slightly acidic and therefore are not permanent.

    Oil pastels can be manipulated with solvents such as mineral spirits and Turpenoid. They can also be mixed with linseed oil and other oil paint-ing mediums. Note that integrating organic oils will negatively affect the archival stability of an oil pastel work and shouldnt be used on absorbent surfaces such as paper.

    Chemistry

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