McMaster Symposium on Iron Steelmills Steelmaking ...prug. Symposium on Iron Steelmills Steelmaking Optimization in Mini-Mills Experiences of High Impedance AC EAF arc regulation using the new AMI Automation’s Power Input Optimization Hamilton, Ontario Fernando

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<ul><li><p>MMccMMaasstteerr SSyymmppoossiiuumm oonn IIrroonn &amp;&amp; SStteeeellmmiillllss SStteeeellmmaakkiinngg OOppttiimmiizzaattiioonn iinn MMiinnii--MMiillllss </p><p>EExxppeerriieenncceess ooff HHiigghh IImmppeeddaannccee AACC EEAAFF aarrcc rreegguullaattiioonn uussiinngg tthhee nneeww AAMMII AAuuttoommaattiioonnss PPoowweerr </p><p>IInnppuutt OOppttiimmiizzaattiioonn </p><p>HHaammiillttoonn,, OOnnttaarriioo FFeerrnnaannddoo MMaarrttiinneezz MMaayy 2288tthh,, 11999977 AAMMII MMeellttsshhooppss </p><p>Introduction Years ago, Previous EAF operation technologies were focused into short arcs, high currents and a lower impedance system design to transfer more power into the furnace, with the consequent high electrode consumption. </p><p>It was not until the development of the foamy slag practice that people changed to a long arc operation, with a swing to lower operational currents and lower impedances, minimizing electrode consumption. </p><p>However, this new practice brought new challenges, mainly higher flicker, especially during the boredown period, and an increased un-stability of the arc, with the corresponding higher harmonics, and higher stress on all mechanical components due to vibrations. </p><p>High Arc Impedance Recently a new concept has been developed to minimize this drawbacks and achieve an even longer arc operation. This concept is frequently called High Impedance operation </p><p>The goal with this new concept is to operate in a point very close to the maximum power point of a given tap, to lower the sensitivity of MW changes versus Current changes. This is achieved adding a reactor on the primary circuit, and raising the voltage taps on the secondary of the furnace transformer to compensate for the voltage drop the rector creates. </p></li><li><p>Figure 1, shows how through a combination of different transformer taps and series reactors in the primary of the furnace, 4 points that will run at similar power levels at their maximum, can be achieved with very different secondary currents. </p><p>FIGURE 1.- </p><p> CONSTANT POWER</p><p>0</p><p>10</p><p>20</p><p>30</p><p>40</p><p>50</p><p>60</p><p>70</p><p>30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90</p><p>S e c o nda ry Curre nt, KA</p><p>Prim</p><p>ary </p><p>Rea</p><p>l Pow</p><p>er, M</p><p>WAMI Automation</p><p>dio\[Dallas05.xls]Pmax</p><p>1000v-0.7ohm</p><p>700v-0ohms</p><p>800v-0.3ohm</p><p>900v-0.5ohm</p><p>Table 1, shows this same four points in a tabular form, where it can be realized that the minimum current maximum requires an arc length almost double than the one with the maximum current. The low current operation (42,4 K.Amps versus 54.4K.Amps) has an electrode consumption of nearly a third, but a RWI (Refractory Wear Index) almost double. </p><p>TABLE 1.- </p><p>Operation Points</p><p>CONSTANT POWERC cept Units 700V 800V 900V 1000VonScenario DescriptionSeries Reactor mOhmsSecondary Current KAPrimary Real Power MWArc Length IndexesLength inArc Length Index mm/KAPower/Current MW/KAElectrode Cons. Index I2HRWI MW/cm</p><p>0.0 1.0 2.1 3.764.4 55.5 48.8 42.450.0 50.1 50.3 48.8</p><p>6.3 7.9 9.5 11.02.5 3.6 4.9 6.60.8 0.9 1.0 1.2</p><p>4,148 3,080 2,385 1,8019,487 12,338 15,155 17,301</p></li><li><p>In fact, every operation Arc (Power, Current), can be achieved with different combinations of secondary voltage and reactor sizes. This is shown on figure 2. This figure shows the same point belonging to two different curves. </p><p>FIGURE 2.- </p><p> SAME CURRENT &amp; POWER</p><p>0</p><p>10</p><p>20</p><p>30</p><p>40</p><p>50</p><p>60</p><p>70</p><p>30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90</p><p>S e c o nd a ry Curre nt, KA</p><p>Prim</p><p>ary </p><p>Rea</p><p>l Pow</p><p>er, M</p><p>W</p><p>AMI Automation</p><p>dio\[Dallas05.xls]SameP&amp;I</p><p>900v-R=0.3ohm800v-R=0.0ohm</p><p>On one of the curves, this point is almost the maximum, leading to a very stable operation, while in the other one, the point is very far left of the maximum for that particular curve, resulting in a very un-stable arc. </p><p>This comparison is shown in a tabular basis on table 2 </p><p>TABLE 2.- </p><p>Operation Point</p><p>SAME POINTCo cept Units 800V 900VnScenario DescriptionSeries Reactor mOhmsSecondary Current KAPrimary Real Power MWArc StabilityArc Length Index mm/KAReignition Voltage VoltsSC Current KAHarmonic Factor %SCVD %Arc LengthLength inPower Profile Slope MW/KARWI MW/cm</p><p>0.0 1.356.1 56.157.3 56.9</p><p>4.2 4.2402 517</p><p>122.3 79.330% 20%3.86 3.57</p><p>9.3 9.20.6 0.0</p><p>16,650 16,352</p></li><li><p>As it can be observed on this table, the main differences between these two points are the harmonic contents, the re-ignition voltage, and the Power profile slope (M. Watts per K. Amp.) </p><p>The re-ignition voltage concept is best exemplified on figure 3 and 4 </p><p> FIGURE 3.- FIGURE 4.- </p><p>As the current lags the arc voltage, when the current passes through zero, the arc extinguishes, and waits until enough voltage builds up in the electrode tip to re-strike. </p><p>Depending on the system impedance, the more the current lags the voltage (higher impedance), the greater the voltage on the tip of the electrode when the current goes through zero. This minimizes the wait time, and the harmonics generated. </p><p>The High Impedance concept allows to operate with lower currents, better arc stability and lower flicker levels, which in many cases prevents the need ton use dynamic compensation equipment (SVC). </p><p>However, the main challenge is to operate at much longer arcs. </p><p>This requires a better practice of slag foaming, and an automatic control system that can protect the furnace walls when the arc is exposed. </p><p>-1.8</p><p>-1.2</p><p>-0.6</p><p>0.0</p><p>0.6</p><p>1.2</p><p>81.</p><p>0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700PHASE ANGLE, Degrees[CursoING.xls]Reign0</p><p>Electrode's TIP VOLTAGE ARC </p><p>CURRENT</p><p>REIGNITION VOLTAGE</p><p>ARC EXTINCTION &amp; HARMONIC GENERATION</p><p>Minimum Reactance</p><p>-1.8</p><p>-1.2</p><p>-0.6</p><p>0.0</p><p>0.6</p><p>1.2</p><p>81.</p><p>0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700PHASE ANGLE, Degrees[CursoING.xls]Reign3</p><p>Electrode's TIP VOLTAGE NEW ARC CURRENT</p><p>REIGNITION VOLTAGE</p><p>ARC EXTINCTION &amp; HARMONIC GENERATION</p><p>Ideal Condition</p></li><li><p>AMIs Power Input Optimization System The system developed by AMI Power Input Optimization, addresses this concerns, to optimize the power input into the furnace by selecting dynamically then best tap and arc length as the conditions in the heat change. </p><p>The PIO system has a modular structure, to allow an step implementation. </p><p>The four main building blocks are the DigitARC, the ARCmeter, the Monitoring System, and the SmartARC. </p><p>Figure 5, shows the configuration of the system. Basically, the DigitARC is a software algorithm implemented in a PLC, that monitors the voltage and current and moves each electrode up or down to control a given arc reference. </p><p>Figure 5.- Power Input Optimization.-Figure 5.- Power Input Optimization.-SystemSystem ConfigurationConfiguration</p><p>EAF</p><p>DigitARC</p><p>ARCMETER</p><p>ARC Monitoring</p><p>PLC Network</p><p>Smart ARC</p><p>The ARCmeter, is a dedicated system that monitors the secondary voltage and current and very fast calculates true RMS values, and sends these values to the PLC as feedback. </p><p>The monitoring system is a PC connected to the network that monitors and displays the electrical parameters to the furnace operator. This screen, also allows the operator to preset power profiles to use, or to select the operation mode between a manual mode, where the operator selects the arc reference, the Auto mode, where a Power profile is followed, or the Smart mode, where the SmartARC dynamically selects the optimum Tap and arc length reference. </p></li><li><p>The main functions of the SmartARC computer are to provide a tap reference to the EAF transformer, a tap reference to the reactor if equipped with an on-load tap changer or to switch it off, and to set the arc length reference. </p><p>Also, when continuous DRI is feed to the EAF, the SmartARC will set the DRI feeding reference automatically. </p><p>Results The results to be expected of this system vary from furnace to furnace. Results of applying the system in five different cases are presented. </p><p> SMI Seguin </p><p> Chaparral Steel </p><p> Cascade Steel </p><p> Nucor Utah (2) </p><p> Birmingham Steel, Seattle </p></li><li><p>Case No. 1.- SMI Seguin </p><p>SMI Seguin furnace is installed in an extremely weak utility network. Their biggest problem is the generation of flicker. Over the years they have done many enhancements to the EAF primary circuit to minimize these negative effects. </p><p>The most distinctive characteristic is that they have a primary reactor with an on-load tap changer. </p><p>Figure 6 shows how the SmartARC monitors the flicker, and depending on it changes the Transformer and Reactor taps to apply power as fast as possible, without exceeding allowable Flicker limits. </p><p>FIGURE 6.- </p><p>F licke r Le ve l</p><p>0</p><p>2</p><p>4</p><p>6</p><p>8</p><p>10</p><p>12</p><p>14</p><p>16</p><p>18</p><p>20</p><p>22</p><p>24</p><p>0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35T im e , m in s</p><p>Tran</p><p>sfor</p><p>mer</p><p> and </p><p>Reac</p><p>tor T</p><p>ap</p><p>0</p><p>0.1</p><p>0.2</p><p>0.3</p><p>0.4</p><p>0.5</p><p>0.6</p><p>0.7</p><p>0.8</p><p>Flick</p><p>er L</p><p>evel</p><p>Trans f ormer Flic ker</p><p>Reac tor tap</p><p>Later in the heat, when flicker is no longer a concern, the system optimizes the power by lengthening the arc when the slag conditions allow a long arc operation. </p><p>The SmartARC system has been in operation at SMI since May 1994. </p><p>The recorded results from May 94 to October 95, account for an increase in average power of 3%, reduction of Kwh/Ton of 1.5 %, reduction of Power On-Time of 5.1 %, and a reduction of electrode consumption of 7.1 %. </p><p>SMI lost their SVC since October 1995. Since then, the SmartARC has played an even more important role, to step the power input into the furnace as the conditions and restrictions allowed. </p><p>Even under these conditions, the people from SMI have been able to break their old production records and reach the 33 heats a day record. The SmartARC is a tool that has contributed to this success. </p></li><li><p>Case No. 2.- Chaparral Steel B furnace </p><p>This furnace is a very well run, low impedance / high power furnace, where they were running at their maximum tap of 1000 volts. </p><p>The project was to implement a complete PIO system, and compare it with their existing operation. </p><p>After 5 months of operation, 1500 heats were compared with and without the use of the PIO system. </p><p>Figure 6 shows Energy versus I2H (related to electrode consumption) for these heats. </p><p>FIGURE 7.- </p><p>31</p><p>McMasterMay, 97 Chaparral Results.-B FurnaceChaparral Results.-B Furnace</p><p>2000</p><p>2500</p><p>3000</p><p>3500</p><p>4000</p><p>4500</p><p>5000</p><p>5500</p><p>5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000</p><p>Ser ies 1</p><p>Ser ies 2</p><p>S A</p><p>No S A</p><p>M W H *100</p><p>I2H vs M W H</p><p>I2H</p><p>Jan. 1st,- May 31st,1996,722 Heats w/o SmartARC, 918 Heats with SmartARC</p><p>As can be seen from the darker points, the use of the PIO resulted in heats with a total lower energy and electrode consumption in average </p></li><li><p>Case No. 3.- Cascade Steel </p><p>Cascade EAF was running with a reactor in the primary of the EAF and a maximum secondary voltage of 833 volts. </p><p>After two months of trials, figure 7 and 8 show how the operation with the PIO system resulted in less KWH/Ton, and less electrode consumption (I2H). </p><p>FIGURE 8.- </p><p>375</p><p>400</p><p>425</p><p>450</p><p>475</p><p>500</p><p>44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58</p><p>SaMWHMWH</p><p>FIGURE 9.- </p><p>15001600170018001900200021002200230024002500</p><p>300 350 400 450 500</p><p>SaAvgI2HAvgI2H</p></li><li><p>Case No. 4.- Nucor Utah </p><p>These furnaces were revamped by Fuchs to change the electrode mechanism to hydraulics, and the arms to Current Conducting arms. As part of this project a complete PIO was installed for each of the two furnaces. </p><p>Results for the complete project were reduction in their power on-time, reduction in their electrode consumption, and a significant reduction in gunning material, and an increase of delta life. </p><p>Case No. 5.- Birmingham Steel, Seattle </p><p>This is a new Fuchs furnace installed in 1995. This furnace has an reactor with off-load tap changer, and a transformer with a maximum voltage of 1200 volts. </p><p>The project was to install a SmartARC system to the existing DigitARC to speed up the furnace. </p><p>As part of the evaluation, it was demonstrated after the first heat the potential benefits of the system, allowing to stay on higher taps longer in the heat, as compared to a pre-programmed power profile. </p><p>The main benefits achieved were: </p><p> Lower Kwh/Ton .- 1.3 % Reduction in Power On-time 4.2 % Reduction in tap to tap time: 2.3 % Increased heats per day: 5 % Reduction in Gunning material: 38 % Electrode consumption reduction: 3 % </p><p>Conclusions: The high impedance power system concept has proven to be very beneficial in the operation of EAFs. </p><p>AMIs Power Input Optimization has demonstrated to be an excellent tool to help the operating personnel to maximize the potential gains to be obtained for each particular electrical system. </p><p>Every furnace and every operation are different. Flexibility to tailor the system to each furnace particular circumstances is a key element for success. </p><p>McMaster Symposium on Iron &amp; SteelmillsSteelmaking OptimizHamilton, Ontario Fernando Martinez May 28th, 1997 IntroductionHigh Arc ImpedanceFIGURE 1.-TABLE 1.-FIGURE 2.-FIGURE 3.- FIGURE 4.-</p><p>AMIs Power Input Optimization SystemResultsCase No. 1.- SMI SeguinFIGURE 6.-</p><p>Case No. 2.- Chaparral Steel B furnaceFIGURE 7.-</p><p>Case No. 3.- Cascade SteelFIGURE 8.-FIGURE 9.-</p><p>Case No. 4.- Nucor UtahCase No. 5.- Birmingham Steel, Seattle</p><p>Conclusions:</p></li></ul>

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