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DESCRIPTIONSupport de l'intervention de Marianne Wolf lors de la 1ère session des Entretiens du Nouveau Monde Industriel 2012.
- 1. The Changing Reading Brain of the21st Century: The Importance of Knowing what we do not Know for the Future of How We ThinkThe Importance of Knowing what we do not Know
2. Center for Readingand Language Research Maryanne Wolf, Director Mirit Barzillai, Semantics, Global Stephanie Gottwald, Asst. Literacy, TechnologyDirector, Linguistics, Teacher Elizabeth Norton, Brain ImagingTraining in Early Predictors of Dyslexia Yashira Perez, Genes,Dyslexia, African-American & Kate Ullman, African-AmericanLatino childrenDialect and Reading Cathy Moritz, Music and Surina Basho, Memory andReading Dyslexia Subtypes Yvonne Gill (Arizona) andLynne Miller, Curriculum Melissa Orkin, AffectiveDevelopment for RAVE-O Development and DyslexiaBasic and Plus 3. I am deeply indebted to...Heidi BallyCinthia Coletti HaanUlrike Kesper-Grossman and Paul GrossmanRossella and Aurelio Maria Mottola 4. Great transitions in Communication1 Non- language toOral Language2 Oral Language to Written Language 3Written Languageto Digital Culture 5. Three Questions of Kant (Dunne,2012)What can we know?What should we do?What may we hope? 6. 1. Can what we know about the evolution of the reading braininform the future, digital culture? 2. Can what we know about the What can we reading brain illumine what we do notKnow from know about how reading and thought willdevelop in the next generation ?Neurosciences?3. Can knowledge about the readingbrain, combined with multiple waysof knowing ---exemplified by Socrates,Proust, and Nicholas of Cusa--- propel amore hopeful approach to our transition? 7. 1. Can what we know about the evolution of the reading brain inform the future, digital culture ? 8. An Approach to the Study of Reading from Cognitive Neurosciences from Cognitive Neurosciences 9. The human brain was never born to read.How did the human brain learn to read withno genetic program or specific readingcenter? 10. Dehaene, 2009Neuronal Recycling for Literacy 11. Principles of Brain DesignUnderpinning Cultural Inventions Ability to form newconnected circuits Capacity for workinggroups of neurons tospecialize (patternrecognition) Capacity forTwo Pyramidals,Greg Dunnautomatization 12. Neuronal Niche (Dehaene,2009)For First Logographic SymbolsY 13. Evidence for Neuronal Recycling and Possibly Proto-letters Dehaenes Studies ofNumeracy in Primates Studies of Baboons and Orthographic LearningGrainger et al.New Studies of Non- Literate Children in Ethiopia-Tufts and MIT Media Lab 14. Earlier Tablets: Sumerian Earliest emphases on phonology, orthography, semantics, syntax, and morphology (Cohen, 2000) 15. Greek Writing and the Alphabetic Principle The insight that words are made up of sounds and each sound can be signified by a symbol . 16. Multiple Circuits of Reading BrainEnglishBrain canrearrange itself in multipleChineseways to read,& Kanjidepending on writing systemJapaneseand medium. Bulger, Perfetti, & SchneiderKana 17. How does the Young Brain Learn to Read? Each new reader mustcreate a new readingcircuit from oldercognitive andlinguisticstructures and their connections 18. Martinos MITImaging Center 19. Early Reading Brain:Everything Matters in the Development of theReading Circuit 20. P honemesO rthographicPatternsS emanticsS yntaxM orphologyParticularly, Language Development 21. Expert Deep Reading Brain on Proust 22. The Heart of Expert Reading Expert ReadingAt the heart ofreading,100 to 200milliseconds allow ustime to thinknew thoughts. 23. We feel quite truly thatour wisdom begins withthat of the authorBy alaw which perhapssignifies that we canreceive the truth fromnobody, that which is theend of their wisdomappears to us as but thebeginning of ours.Nous sentons Marcel Proust tres bien que notre sagesse commence oucelle de lauteur finit... 24. Deep ReadingSlower,concentratedcognitive processesencouraged inpresentexpert readingbrain 25. InferenceAnalogicalThinkingCritical Analysisand DeliberationInsight andEpiphanyContemplationGoing beyond thewisdom of the author 26. 2. Can what we know about the Reading Brainillumine what we do not know about how reading and thought will develop in a digital culture ? 27. What are the deeper implications of having aplastic reading circuit as we move to a digitally dominated set of mediums ? 28. How do we think on-line?The scariest thing about Stanley Kubricks vision wasnt that computers started to act like people but that people had started to act like computers. Were beginning to process information as if were nodes; its all about the speed of locating and reading data.Were transferring our intelligence into the machine, and the machine is transferring its way of thinking into us. Nick Carr in Do you trust Google?, WIRED, Jan. 2008 29. Cognitive characteristics ofon-line readingin the digital reading brainContinuous partial attention; less sustainedattention and focusSet for immediacy and speed of processingFaster multi-tasking of large sets of information37 30. Differences in Attention: Skimming is the newnormalScanning, browsing, bouncing, keyword spotting (Liu,2005, 2009)Less time on in-depth, concentrated readingPsychological reflex to click and move setDecreased sustained attention 31. More attention tovisual, external imageryLess emphases ontouch and materialityLess internalization ofknowledge, and moredependence on externalsources 32. Cognitive Effects of Multi-tasking:Brain Imaging StudiesBrain Imaging StudiesEven if we can learn while distracted,it changes how you learn, makingthe learning less efficient and usefulMultitasking hinders learningRuss Poldrack (2006)Proceedings from National Academy of Science 33. Touch and Materiality Factors:Kinesthesia and Synesthesia Emphases in Screen and PrintNear impossibility of getting immersed in hypertext in same way as getting lost in a book(Mangen, 2009) 34. Comprehension for On-Screen vs. PrintScreen Print(Ackerman & Lauterman, 2012) 35. The Formation of Deep ReadingHowdoes deep reading come to be? 36. Cautions From the Last TransitionSocrates feared that printwould give the illusion oftruth and create no ambitionin the young beyond thesuperfluity ofknowledge . 37. Is superfluity (shallow reading)and the expectation for constant,immediate external information bethe new threat for digital readers? Will these emphases short-circuit the reading brain? 38. Will the process of internalization of knowledgerequire too much time and cognitive effort given immediateaccess to external knowledgeWill imagination in childhood be displaced by too muchthat is given too quickly requiring too littleeffort ?Will the development of imagery in the child bedisplaced by visual imagery that is provided 39. We can not go back to apre-digital time; but, weshould not lurch forward without understanding what we will lose ,what we will gain , for our species cognitive repertoire. 40. It would be a shame if brilliant technology were to end up threatening the kind of intellect that produced it.- Edward Tenner 41. Three Questions of Kant (Dunne, 2012)What can we know? What should we do? What may we hope ? 42. 3. Can knowledge about the reading brain, combined with multiple ways of knowing ---exemplified bySocrates/Aristotle, Proust, and Nicholas of Cusa--- propel a more hopeful approach to our transition? 43. How do we prevent Shortcircuiting of deep reading brainwhile acquiring new skills necessary for the 21st Century? 44. A culture can be judged by how it pursues three lives: the life ofactivity and productivity, the life ofenjoyment, the life ofcontemplation. -Aristotle 45. Massive information processing with more non-linear branching and iconic emphases Advantages of Digital Reading Speed and efficiencyBrain for the Life Multi-tasking andof Activity andinteractive communication ProductivityDemocratization of knowledge 46. One of the greatestimpediments to this form of reading is thebusy mind thatskips from one thoughtto the next without thecapacity to enter thehidden depths of wordsthat require both receptivity and thequiet focusing of attention.-Enzo Bianchi 47. Advantages of DeepReading Brain for the Life ofContemplationThe timerequired by deep reading both in milliseconds during the reading actand in years of formationchanges the quality of thought. 48. We transgress notbecause we try to build the new, but becausewe do not allow ourselves to consider what it disrupts ordiminishes -Sherry Turkle, Alone Together 49. How do we resolve a coincidence of opposites of believable truths?-Nicholas of Cusa 50. learn-ed ignoranceA kind of knowing that is aware of its own limits: what we know what we do not knowand what we need to know to understand and move forward. to understand and move forward. 51. What we know... 52. We know...... our brain was never genetically programmed to read. 53. We know...... each reader must build a new reading circuit. 54. We know...... this reading circuit is plastic and influenced by the specific emphases of different writing systems andmediums 55. We know...... that the present reading brain is capable of boththe most superficial and the deepest forms of reading, feeling, and thought 56. What we do not know... 57. We do not know...... but we can predict that information will accelerate atrates that will make completely new demands on every person in the next generation.Courtesy of Ray Kurzweil and Kurzweil Technologies, Inc. 58. We do not know......if immediate access to massive amounts of informationwill change the nature of internal processing during reading--- its deeper comprehension and theinternalization of knowledge for future thoughts andinsights beyond information given. 59. We do not know...... if the immediate access to this increasing amount of external information in the young will deter from the formation of Deep Reading processe