mapping the impact of crossbreeding in smallholder cattle systems

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  • MappingtheimpactofcrossbreedinginsmallholdercattlesystemsinIndonesia

    TriSatyaMastutiWidi

  • ThesiscommitteePromotorProf.DrA.J.vanderZijppEmeritusProfessorofAnimalProductionSystemsWageningenUniversityCopromotorsDrH.M.J.UdoAssociateprofessor,AnimalProductionSystemsGroupWageningenUniversityDrJ.K.OldenbroekSeniorResearcher,CentreforGeneticResourcesWageningenUniversityandResearchCentreOthermembersProf.DrR.F.Veerkamp,WageningenUniversityProf.DrG.C.Gandini,UniversityofMilan,ItalyDrI.Hoffmann,FoodandAgricultureOrganization,Rome,ItalyDrC.Almekinders,WageningenUniversityThisresearchwasconductedundertheauspicesoftheGraduateSchoolofWageningenInstituteofAnimalSciences(WIAS).

  • MappingtheimpactofcrossbreedinginsmallholdercattlesystemsinIndonesia

    TriSatyaMastutiWidi

    Thesis

    submittedinfulfillmentoftherequirementsforthedegreeofdoctoratWageningenUniversity

    bytheauthorityoftheAcademicBoard,inthepresenceofthe

    ThesisCommitteeappointedbytheAcademicBoardtobedefendedinpubliconMonday29June2015at4p.m.intheAula.

  • TriSatyaMastutiWidiMappingtheimpactofcrossbreedinginsmallholdercattlesystemsinIndonesia136pages.PhDthesis,WageningenUniversity,Wageningen,NL(2015)Withreferences,withsummaryinEnglish ISBN:9789462573246

  • Inmemoryofmymother,KoestinahKadarwati(19372005)andmyfather,SoemintoHardjo(19312013)

    DedicatedtomydearsistersTrisnaandHetty,mybeloveddaughterMalyaandmylovinghusband,Ika

  • Weneedtoshiftthefocusfromdoingresearchonfarmerstodoingresearchwithfarmers(CGIAR,2014)

  • CONTENTS

    Chapter1Generalintroduction

    1

    Chapter2UniqueculturalvaluesofMaduracattle:iscrossbreedingathreat?

    17

    Chapter3IscrossbreedingofcattlebeneficialformixedfarmingsystemsinCentralJava?

    37

    Chapter4Iscrossbreedingofcattlebeneficialfortheenvironment?ThecaseofmixedfarmingsystemsinCentralJava,Indonesia

    67

    Chapter5DesigninggeneticimpactmethodologybasedoncrossbreedingwithexoticbeefbreedsinmixedfarmingsystemsinIndonesia

    89

    Chapter6Generaldiscussion

    111

    Summary

    127

    Acknowledgements 131

    Abouttheauthor 133

    Publications 134

    PhDeducationplan 135

    Colophon 136

  • ABSTRACT

    Inresponsetoincreasingdemandformeat,IndonesiasgovernmenthasbeenimplementingcrossbreedingwithEuropeanbeefbreeds to improve themeatproductionof localcattle.ThemainobjectiveofthepresentstudywastoevaluatethebenefitsandconsequencesofcrossbreedinginsmallholdercattlefarmingsystemsinMaduraandCentralJava.Thestudyused participatory approaches, observations during cultural events in Madura, andmeasurementsof cattleperformances, feedingpracticesand farm inputs andoutputs. InMadura,crossbreedingisnotathreattothetwoculturaleventsinvolvingcattle,sonok(cowconformation contest) and karapan (bull racing), nor to the subpopulations ofMaduracattleinthespecificareaswheretheseeventsareorganised.Farmersoutsidethesonokandkarapanareas,preferLimousincrossbreds (madrasin) toconventionalMaduracattle.ThecurrentbreedingandconservationapproachesdonotdistinguishbetweendifferentMaduracattletypesanddonotconsiderthespecificneedsofthefarmersinthesonokandkarapanareas.InJava,farmersperceivethatcrossbreedingofSimmentalwithlocalOngolecattleisbeneficialforthem.Crossbreedingwasnotaccompaniedwithchangesinthecattlefarmingsystems.Crossbredcattlereachedahigherbodyweightandthereforehadahighermarketprice, but they also requiredmore feed. This resulted in comparableGrossMargins forfarmswithcrossbredandOngolestock.Farmerspreferredthecrossbredsbecauseoftheirniceappearance,highgrowth rateand thehighermarketprice forprogeny compared toOngole.Crossbreedingasatoolof intensificationdidnotreducethecarbon footprintandland use per kilogram liveweight produced. The advantage from the faster growth ofcrossbredswascounteractedbythehigheremissionsandlandusefromfeedproductionforcrossbreds.Thedualism in crossbreeding is thatpolicymakerspromote crossbreeding tomeettheincreasingdemandforbeef,whereasfarmersareconcernedwiththeirlivelihoodsand the multifunctionality of cattle. Crossbreeding contributes to increased meatproduction at the national level, however, it has limited possibilities to improve cattleproduction at farm level. Crossbreeding is also not reducing rural poverty. Participatoryapproaches should ensure that farmers views are considered in national crossbreedingpolicies andpractices. InMadura andCentral Java, farmers identifiedeconomicbenefits,feed availability, cattlemanagement, animalperformances, additional functionsof cattle,and health and fertility as issues to be considered beforehand in a genetic impactassessment of crossbreeding. Other stakeholders mentioned meat production,environmentalqualityanddiversity in farmanimalgenetic resourcesas important issues.Crossbreedingwill inevitablycontinue inJavaandMadura.Breedingstrategies,havetobeadjusted,however,as farmersdonotwant toupgrade their local cattle toSimmentalorLimousin.Viablepopulationsoflocalcattleareneededtoensuresustainablecrossbreedingstrategies.

  • Chapter1

    Generalintroduction

    CattlemarketwithOngoleandcrossbredanimals

  • Generalintroduction

    2

    1.1.Generalbackground

    Population growth, urbanisation, economic progress and changing consumerpreferencesboost thedemand for livestockproducts indeveloping countries (Delgadoetal.,2001).Indonesiaisanemergingeconomy,wherehighpopulationgrowthandeconomicprogressaremajordrivingforcesfortherisingdemandforanimalsourcefoods.Redmeatisa traditional animal source food in Indonesia (Sullivan andDiwyanto,2007). The averagemeatconsumptionis1.87kg/capitaperyear(BPS,2011)andisexpectedtoincreaseto3.72kg/capitaperyearby2020.Thehumanpopulationisexpectedtoincreasefromthecurrent241 million to 274 million by 2020 (Agus et al., 2014). The highest production andconsumptionofbeef is in Java, themain island,where57%of thehumanpopulation live(Kementan, 2013). To satisfy the demand formeat, the government has been importingmeataswellas live feederandslaughterstock,a fewbreedinganimalsandsemen.Sincethe1980s,thegovernmenthasbeenpromotingartificialinsemination(AI)usingexoticBostaurusbreeds,suchasSimmental,Limousin,AberdeenAngusandHereford,toimprovethemeatproductionoflocalcattle,especiallyinJava.

    In Indonesia, cattle systems have developed for centuries in harmony with localconditionsforclimate,vegetation,existingfarmingsystemsandsocial,culturalandreligiousvalues.Smallholdercattlefarmsarecharacterisedbykeepingbetweentwoandfourheadofcattle and integrating crop and livestock production (Djajanegara and Diwyanto, 2002;Priyantietal.,2012).Thisisdonebygatheringnutrientsfromwastelands,roadsides,homegardens and crop residues, and using draught power for the cultivation of arable land(Beets,1990;Devendra,1993;Rodriguez andPreston,1997). In Java andMadura,whichhavedenselypopulatedruralregionswith limitedgrazingareas,cattleareuniversallykeptinabarnandfedforages,whicharecutandcarriedfromroadsidesandfieldmargins.Thecutandcarryfeedingsystemislabourintensive(Tanneretal.,2001).

    The importance of livestock for smallholder livelihoods around the world is wellunderstood. For poor households, the nonincome functions of livestock keeping areparticularly important (Anderson,2003). In Indonesia, farmersdonotonly keep cattle toproducemeatfortheurbanmarket.Cattlearealsokepttosupportcroppingwithmanureand draught power, and as livelihood assets (Widi, 2004). The livelihood functions orbenefitsincludesavings,buffering,insuranceandculturalbenefits(Anderson,2003;Molletal.,2007).The introductionofcrossbreeding insmallholdersystems impliesthatthemajorobjectivesofkeepingcattlewillchange frommultipurposeproduction tomarketorientedproduction(Udoetal.,2011).

    Culturalpractices,inparticular,areexpectedtorequirespecificcharacteristics,whichmightnotbefulfilledbycrossbredanimals.CattlebreedsinIndonesiadiffersubstantiallyintheirculturalvalues.InBaliIsland,albinoBalicattlearetreatedasholycattleandusedinaculturalceremony(Panjono,2014).Balipeople(mostlyHindu)arenotallowedtoslaughterwhitecattle(mostlyZebu,suchasOngoleandBrahman),astheybelievethatawhitebullisthemountofthegodWisnu.InmainlandJava,theculturalvaluesofcattlearemuchless

  • Chapter1

    3

    pronounced. For aminority of Java people (usually rich farmers),Ongole bulls still havesocioculturalvalueasahobbyandexpressingpride inkeepingbeautifulcattle. InCentralJava, traditional cart pulling festivities with Ongole males are organized every month.CulturalvaluesofcattlearemostprominentinMadura.Crossbreedingwasprohibitedforalongperiod, inordertoprotecttheMaduracattlebreedandtraditionalculturalpractices.However, since 2001, crossbreeding is allowed inMadura. In Bali crossbreeding is stillprohibitedtoprotecttheBalibreed(Bosbanteng).

    Exotic breeds have been introduced inmany developing regions for crossbreedingwithlocalbreeds.Bostaurussiresforbeefcattlecrossbreedingmayresultinhighergrowthrates and larger carcasses, at least under improvedmanagement conditions (Said et al.,2003;Scholtzetal.,2011).This requiresmore feed resources, improvedmarketingandabetter infrastructure. Crossbreeding has often failed to yield the desired and expectedresults. Results from optimized testing facilities cannot be directly translated to mixedfarmingsystems,where institutionaland infrastructuralconstraintsareprominent.Scholtzet al. (2011) claim that it is likely crossbreeding programs will never succeed in harshenvironmentsunlessadequate fodderavailability isassured. In Indonesia,especially Java,lackoffeed isamajorconstraintforcattleproduction. It isquestionablewhetherfarmerscouldaffordtogroworbuythefeedandconcentratesrequiredbycrossbredcattle.

    Crossbreeding in smallholder systems is never done systematically (Wollny, 2003).Thisisamajorthreattotheconservationoflocalgeneticresources(Wollny,2003).So,thereisgeneralconcern thatgeneticvariation isdisappearing thr

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