Manual Testing Interview QnA

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<p>Manual Testing Interview QnA Prepared by Kiran,that s ME!!!</p> <p>1)Have you ever completely tested any part of a product? How?A1) One cannot do 100 % testing and say that the product is bug free. Below points should be noted: 1. Prepare tracebility matrix so that you wil know if any test case/ functionality is missed out By this you would know how far you have tested. 2. Also, make sure that you have covered critical, complex functionality And there are no showstopper, critical bugs , major bugs. A2) It atually depends on the number of modules present in the product. If its less in number and have sufficent time and resource available for test -we can test the product completely. And if the product is many module .it become exhaustive for testing it completely in this case.We can test major funcitionalities of the application which are most visible to user and critical parts in the product.</p> <p>2) What are the key challenges of testing?A1) Following are some challenges while testing software 1.Requirements are not freezed. 2.Application is not testable. 3. Ego problems. 4. Defect in defect tracking system 5.Miscommunication or no Communication 6.Bug in software development tools. 7. Time pressures</p> <p>3) What is the difference b/w system testing and functional testing?A1) 1)Functional Testing:-It is one of the testing type and related to functionality of system or component that 'What it does'. It focuses on suitability, interoperability, security, accuracy and compliance. 2) System testing:- It is one of the test level and concerned with the behavior of the whole system/product as defined by the scope of a development project or product, it is</p> <p>process of testing an integrated system to verify that it meets specified requirements. System testing should investigate both functional and non-functional requirements of the system.</p> <p>4) When should testing be stopped?A) When the test manager is confident that the application will perform as expected in the production environment. This confidence is derived by analysis conducted on: a) Deadlines (release deadlines, testing deadlines, etc.) are met b) Test cases completed with certain percentage passed c) Test budget depleted d) Coverage of code/functionality/requirements reaches a specified point e) Meantime between failures f)Risks associated with continuing to test g) Percentage of coverage achieved h) Number of open defects and their severity i)Risk associated with move to production</p> <p>5) Describe to me when you would consider employing a failure mode and effect analysis.A) failure: failure means "the fact of somenthing expected not being done." that means the application peforms actions against the requirements. effect means " a change caused by mething" effect analysis: since application not perform actions according to the requirements we have to analyse the effect. i.e; where the application deviates from it's requirements and cause for that one.</p> <p>6) What is the difference between System Testing and End-To-End Testing? Give at least 2 Examples.A) system testing : It is collection of testing types. Once the total application is developed, It is deployed into the clients specific environment. If one performs testing to check is it working fine in all aspects of that specific environment is known as system testing. End-to-end testing: To check all internal components successful respond. like client,network,apllication server, data base and etc...</p> <p>Or In other words, this testing is meant for checking the inter operability of internal components for successful respond.</p> <p>7) What are the roles of glass-box and black-box testing tools?A) Black-box testing: It is not based on knowledge of internal design or code. Tests are based on requirements and functionality. Black box testing is used to find the errors in the following 1) Interface errors 2) Performance errors 3) Initialization errors 4) Incorrect or missing functionality 5) Errors while accessing external database Glass-box testing: It is based on internal design of an application code.Tests are based on path coverage,branch coverage,statement coverage. It is also known as White Box testing. White box test cases can check for.. 1) All independent paths with in a modules are executed atleast once 2) Execute all loops 3) Exercise all logical decisions 4) Exercise internal data structure to ensure their validity</p> <p>8) What are the 5 points of the difference between configuration testing and compatibility testing?A) Compatibility is to check or test how the built application adopting or compatible with different operating systems like IE,Firfox etc Configuration test or portable test is to check how well the built application is compatible with different hardwares in the company</p> <p>9) How do you test if we have minimal or no documentation about the product?A1) In case we dont have any documentation about the product we can do exploratery testing. Also We can prepare the test cases according to the product,and by running those test cases, testing can be performed. A2) Testing is always performed against a given set of requirements and expectations. In the absence of these, one must first try and gather as much information and requirements on the product. This is achieved by:</p> <p>- Performing Exploratory Testing (Perform a detailed study of the product / application under test, and make a list of features and functionality. The approach usually taken is a depth first breadth later approach.) - Interview the individual responsible for purchasing or procuring the product and understand his/her requirements One you are done with these, construct a details functionality vs. requirement map. This will act as Mini Functional Specifications document. This document can then server as your reference document to perform detailed structured testing activities.</p> <p>10) What is difference between Defect Age &amp; Build Interval Period?A) Defect Age : The time of introduction of defect to time of detection. To compute the measurement one assigns a number to each software development life-cycle phase and calculates difference between detection phase with introduction phase (i.e. "analysis" can be assigned a 1, "design" a 2, "coding" a 3, etc. for computation of defect age). Build interval period: this is the time taken to build newer version of the application and older version.</p> <p>11) What is incremental testing?A1) Incremental testing can be done in two ways: 1.Top-Down Approach In this approach,the main module is connected and the stubs are used to substitute the coordinated (sub)modules and testing is done one by one in incremental manner 2.Bottom-Up Approach The low level components are connected as cluster and the test driver (which is a program code) are used to drive to main and testing is done on cluster one by one. A2) There are 2 types of Integration Testing 1) Incremental Intigration Testing 2) Non-Incremental Intigration Testing. INCREMENTAL INTIGRATION TESTING:In this type of testing we have to add the interface incrementally and check the data flows between modules. For this type of testing we should know the parent / child relationship between the modules means which module is the parent / child of which module.</p> <p>But if we do not know the parent / child relationship between modules then we should go for Non-Incremental Integration Testing.. But in Non-Incremental Integration Testing it is very difficult to a) Find out the Root cause of Defects. b) Test all possible interface between the Modules. In some cases both Incremental and Non-Incremental Integration testing is required which is called as SANDWITCH Integration Testing.</p> <p>12) What is base lining?A) Baselining :Process by which the quality and cost effectiveness of a service is assessed, usually in advance of a change to the service. Baselining usually includes comparison of the service before and after the Change or analysis of trend information. The term Benchmarking is normally used if the comparison is made against other enterprises. For example :If the company has different projects.For each project there will be seperate test plans.This test plans should be accepted by peers in the organization after modifications.That modified test plans are the baseline for the testers to use in different projects.Any further modifications are done in the test plan.Present modified becomes the baseline.Because this test plan becomes the basis for running the testing project.</p> <p>13) What methodologies have you used to develop test cases?A1) There are mainly 3 methods to Design a test case.. 1) Error Guessing ( May not be a Official Process ) 2) Equivalence Partitioning a) b) c) d) If the If the If the Lastly input is a Set of Value then take 1 valid and 2 invalid values input is a Range of Values then take 1 valid and 2 invalid values input is Boolean value then test for both True and False values Devide the whole range of input values in to some equal part and</p> <p>take all valid values with 2 invalid values 3) Boundary Value Analysis A2) Error Guessing: The tester has to guess what fault might occur and to design the tests to represent them.</p> <p>Equivalence Class Partitioning: In this method the input domain data is divided into different equivalence data classes. This method is typically used to reduce the total number of test cases to a finite set of testable test cases, still covering maximum requirements. In short it is the process of taking all possible test cases and placing them into classes. One test value is picked from each class while testing. Boundary value analysis: It?s widely recognized that input values at the extreme ends of input domain cause more errors in system. More application errors occur at the boundaries of input domain. ?Boundary value analysis? testing technique is used to identify errors at boundaries rather than finding those exist in center of input domain. Boundary value analysis is a next part of Equivalence partitioning for designing test cases where test cases are selected at the edges of the equivalence classes.</p> <p>14) Please explain 3-tier architecture?A)3-tier Architecture means Application is not directly depending on the database it lies in between the front end and database and the tier present in between is called business tier 3-tiers are 1) Presentation Tier ( in which HTML, DHTML, JSP pages are developed) 2) Business Tier ( in which JAVA Code, JAVA Beans, EJB are used) 3) Database Tier ( Databases like SQL Server and ORACLE 9i are used)</p> <p>15) What is the difference between SRS(System requirement specification) and BRS(Business requirement specification)?A) SRS is developed by the developer from the BRDor BRS that is given by client SRS specifies system requirments,screen shots of application,field level validation datas like datatype of fields BRS specifies the client requirements it will be in a more general terminology i.e. oriented more toward business of the client. Normally SRS is used of integration and system testing. BRS or BRD(business requirement document) is normally used for UAT(user acceptance testing where only the main functionality is tested</p> <p>16) What are the goals of a performance testing of a web application?A) Performance testing is used for test the application with respect to handle the performance. The main goal behind the performance test on web application is to find out the reason why the application bit slow over access on the network. So it helps to improve the access rate over the network.</p> <p>17) What is difference between Authentication and Authorization?A) Authentication--&gt;Checking the validity.Ex:A creditcard validation by Verisign. It is called authenticating the CreditCard Authorization--&gt;Giving some rights -Ex:I authorize mr.Rahul to sign some papers related with my bank accounts</p> <p>18) what is the difference between QA,QC and testing?A) QA-we are talking about the process. QC-we are talking about the product QA is a planned set of systematic activities necessary to provide adequate confidence that requirments are properly established and products or services conform to the same. Whereas QC is the process by which the product quality is compared with the applicable standards and action is taken when nonconformance is detected</p> <p>19) What is globalisation testing?A) The goal of globalization testing is to detect potential problems in application design that could inhibit globalization. It makes sure that the code can handle all international support without breaking functionality that would cause either data loss or display problems.</p> <p>20) What is UAT testing.When it is to be done?</p> <p>A1) UAT stands for 'User acceptance Testing'This testing is carried out with the user perspective and it is usually done before a release A2) UAT means user acceptance testing generally it done after the system testing two type of UAT testing alpha &amp; Beta alpha means End user come in development envoirment and test the appliction Beta means we hand over ur product &amp; end ur use &amp; test application HIS/HER involvement</p> <p>21) How do you scope, organize, and execute a test project?A) I would study the functional and business requirement documents. Get answers from BA and FA, if I have any questions. I would understand the functionality and figure out role and size of my module in terms of the whole application. This is the way I would understand the scope of the module and thus its testing. I would get data, make sure environment is up and running, ensure other pieces/services are as needed (for my module to interact), and see that testing documents are approved (test plans, test design documents, test cases, bug templates etc). Per test cases that are reviewd and approved by concerned person(s).</p> <p>22) What is meant by sparial model?and advantage and disadvantage?A) The spiral model is similar to the incremental model.The spiral model has four phases: Planning, Risk Analysis, Engineering and Evaluation. Requirements are gathered during the planning phase. In the risk analysis phase, a process is undertaken to identify risk and alternate solutions. A prototype is produced at the end of the risk analysis phase. Advantages High amount of risk analysis Good for large and mission-critical projects. Software is produced early in the software life cycle</p> <p>Disadvantages: Can be a costly model to use. Risk analysis requires highly specific expertise.</p> <p>Project?s success is highly dependent on the risk analysis phase. Doesn?t work well for smaller projects.</p> <p>23) Difference between Efficiency and Effectiveness?A) effiency means how accurately you perform. effectiveness means the usefulness of what you have done</p> <p>24) what is the different between test log and test report?A) test report -----during test execution testengg are reporting mistaches to development team in an IEEE format that is called testreport test log------expected output is called testlog which is in the form of document.</p> <p>25) Define quality for me as...</p>