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  • 1.CHAPTER12PROJECTPROCUREMENTMANAGEMENTAhmad H. Maharma PMP

2. 12.ProjectProcurementManagement Monitoring & Controlling Processes Planning ProcessesEnter phase/ Start projectInitiating ProcessesClosing ProcessesExit phase/ End projectExecuting ProcessesProcess Knowledge AreaInitiating I iti tiPlanning Pl iExecuting E tiPlan Purchases and AcquisitionsProcurementRequest Seller ResponsesPlan ContractingSelect SellersMonitoring & g Contol Contract AdministrationClosing Cl i Contract Closure 3. ProjectProcurement M t Management Theprocessnecessarytoprocessandacquireproductor services,orresultneededfromoutsidetheprojectteam. Involveplanning,acquiringtheproductorservicesfrom sources,choosingasource,administeringthecontract,and closingoutthecontract. Can be applied to internal work orders formal agreements Canbeappliedtointernalworkorders,formalagreements, andcontractsbetweenorganizationunitswithinsingle entity. 4. ProjectManagersRoleinProcurements PMmustbeinvolvedinthecreationof contracts Keyroles: Knowtheprocurementprocess Understandcontracttermsandconditions Makesurethecontractcontainsallprojectmanagementrequirements suchasattendanceatmeeting,reports,actionsandcommunications h tt d t ti t ti d i ti deemednecessary Identifyrisksandincorporatemitigationandallocationofrisksintothe contract Helptailorthecontracttotheuniqueneedsoftheproject Alignscheduleofthecontractandscheduleoftheproject Involved in contract negotiation Involvedincontractnegotiation Makesureprocurementprocessdonesmoothly Workwithcontractmanagertomanagechangestothecontract 5. PROJECTPROCUREMENTMANAGEMENT ProjectProcurementManagementincludestheprocesses necessarytopurchaseoracquireproducts,services,orresults y p q p , , neededfromoutsidetheprojectteam. Theorganizationcanbeeitherthebuyerorselleroftheproducts, services,orresultsofaproject. ProjectProcurementManagementincludesthecontract managementandchangecontrolprocesses (thebuyer)thatisacquiringtheprojectfromtheperforming organization(theseller),andadministering organization (the seller) and administering 6. PROJECTPROCUREMENTMANAGEMENT 12.1PlanProcurementsTheprocessofdocumentingproject p purchasingdecisions,specifyingtheapproach,andidentifying g , p y g pp , y g potentialsellers. 12.2ConductProcurementsTheprocessofobtainingseller responses,selectingaseller,andawardingacontract. 12.3AdministerProcurementsTheprocessofmanaging procurementrelationships,monitoringcontractperformance, andmakingchangesandcorrectionsasneeded. 12 4 Close Procurements The process of completing each 12.4CloseProcurementsTheprocessofcompletingeach projectprocurement. 7. PROJECTPROCUREMENTMANAGEMENT 8. PROJECTPROCUREMENTMANAGEMENT Thesellerwilltypicallymanagetheworkasaprojectiftheacquisitionisnotjustfor shelfmaterial,goods,orcommonproducts.Insuchcases: Thebuyerbecomesthecustomer,andisthusakeyprojectstakeholderforthe seller. The sellers project management team is concerned with all the processes of Theseller sprojectmanagementteamisconcernedwithalltheprocessesof projectmanagement,notjustwiththoseofthisKnowledgeArea. Termsandconditionsofthecontractbecomekeyinputstomanyofthesellers managementprocesses.Thecontractcanactuallycontaintheinputs(e.g.,major g p y p ( g, j deliverables,keymilestones,costobjectives),oritcanlimittheprojectteams options(e.g.,buyerapprovalofstaffingdecisionsisoftenrequiredondesign projects). Thischapterassumesthatthebuyerofitemsfortheprojectisassignedtotheproject teamandthatthe sellersareorganizationallyexternaltotheprojectteam. sellers are organizationally external to the project team 9. 12.1PlanProcurements PlanProcurementsistheprocessofdocumentingproject p purchasingdecisions,specifyingtheapproach,andidentifying g , p y g pp , y g potentialsellers. Itidentiesthoseprojectneedswhichcanbestbe,ormustbe, metbyacquiringproducts,services,orresultsoutsideofthe p j projectorganization,versusthoseprojectneedswhichcanbe g , p j accomplishedbytheprojectteam. Thisprocessinvolvesdeterminingwhethertoacquireoutside supportand,ifsowhattoacquire,howtoacquireit,howmuch , q isneeded,andwhentoacquireit. 10. 12.1PlanProcurements 11. 12.1.1PlanProcurements Inputs p .1ScopeBaseline Scopestatement. Scope statement. WBS.(Section5.3.3.1). WBSdictionary. .2RequirementsDocumentation Importantinformationaboutprojectrequirementsthatis consideredduringplanningforprocurements. Requirementswithcontractualandlegalimplicationsthatmay Requirements with contractual and legal implications that may includehealth,safety,security, performance,environmental,insurance,intellectualpropertyrights, equalemploymentopportunity,licenses,andpermitsallof whichareconsideredwhenplanningforprocurements. 12. 12.1.1PlanProcurements Inputs p .3TeamingAgreements Teaming agreements are legal contractual agreements between Teamingagreementsarelegalcontractualagreementsbetween twoormoreentitiestoformapartnershiporjointventure,or someotherarrangementasdefinedbytheparties. .4RiskRegister .5RiskRelatedContractDecisions .6ActivityResourceRequirements 6 Activity Resource Requirements .7ProjectSchedule .8ActivityCostEstimates .8 Activity Cost Estimates .9CostPerformanceBaseline .10EnterpriseEnvironmentalFactors .11OrganizationalProcessAssets 13. 12.1.2PlanProcurements ToolsandTechniques q 1.MakeorBuyAnalysis Determine whether an organization should make or Determinewhetheranorganizationshouldmakeor perform particularproductorservicebythemselvesor buy/acquire from others. fromothers. Evaluateofthebenefitanddrawback Ofteninvolvesfinancialanalysis Often involves financial analysis Make or buy analysis focus on: Makeorbuyanalysisfocuson: skillsandresources cost time Howcriticalisitthatweretaindetailedcontroloveracertainarea? proprietaryinformationortradesecret 14. 12.1.2PlanProcurements ToolsandTechniques q 15. 12.1.2PlanProcurements ToolsandTechniques q 2. ExpertJudgment Experttechnicaljudgmentwilloftenbeusedtoassesstheinputstoand outputsfromthisprocess. Expertpurchasingjudgmentcanalsobeusedtodevelopormodifythecriteria thatwillbeusedtoevaluatesellerproposals. 16. 12.1.2PlanProcurements ToolsandTechniques q 3.ContractType Fixedprice(FP)contracts FixedPrice(FP),orLumpSum,orFirmFixedPrice(FFP) FixedPriceIncentiveFee(FPIF) Fi d P i I ti F (FPIF) FixedPricewithEconomicPriceAdjustment(FPEPA) Purchaseorder:simplesttypeoffixedpricecontract;unilateral(signedbyoneparty) Costreimbursable(CR)contracts CostPlusFixedFee(CPFF)orCostPlusPercentageofCost(CPPC) CostPlusIncentiveFee(CPIF): CostPlusAwardFee(CPAF) CostContract(Nofee/profite.g.contractinnonprofitorganization) Ti TimeandMaterialContracts(T&M) d M t i l C t t (T&M) Hybridtypeofcontractualarrangementthatcontainaspectsofbothcostreimbursableandfixedpricecontracts 17. Fixedprice(FP)contracts Usedforacquiringgoodsorserviceswithwelldefined specificationsorrequirements. p q SellerismostconcernedwiththeSOW Sometimethebuyerforcessellertoacceptahighlevelrisk Sellerwouldneedhugeamountofreserves Sellercantrytoincreaseprofitbycuttingscope Examples: FP:Contract=$1M FPIF:Contract=$1M+foreverymonthadded$1000 FPAF:Contract=$1M+foreverymonthadded$1000ifperformanceexceed FPEA:Contract=$1M+additionalpricingbasedonGovernmentCenterBankdepreciationrate. PO:$1Kper1metricton $ p 18. CostReimbursable(CR)contracts Usedwhenworkisuncertainand,therefore,costs cannotbeestimatedaccuratelyenough cannot be estimated accurately enough Requiresthesellertohaveanaccountingsystem thatcantrackcosts that can track costs Buyerrequiresauditingsellersinvoice Example: CPF/CPPC:Contract=cost+fee(10%ofcost) CPF/CPPC: Contract = cost + fee (10% of cost) CPFF:Contract=cost+$1K CPIF:cost+additionalfeebasedonperformance p CPAF:cost+additionalfeebasesonmanager satisfaction(performancecriteria) 19. Time&Material(T&M)contracts Usedforserviceeffortsinwhichthelevelofeffort cannotbedefinedatthetime thecontractisawarded Tomakesurethecostsdonotbecomehigherthan budgeted,thebuyermayputa"NottoExceed"andtime limits l li it clauseinthecontract. i th t t Oftenusedforstaffaugmentation,acquisitionofexperts, pp outsidesupport Example: Contract=$1Kperdayplusexpensesormaterialcost. Contract = $1K per day plus material at $5 per linear meter of Contract=$1Kperdayplusmaterialat$5perlinearmeterof wood. 20. Typeofcontract 21. Typeofcontract 22. Typeofcontract 23. Typeofcontract 24. Typeofcontract 25. Typeofcontract 26. Typeofcontract 27. Typeofcontract 28. Typeofcontract 29. Typeofcontract 30. Typeofcontract 31. Typeofcontract 32. Typeofcontract 33. ContractTypesvs.Risk Effect of contract type on buyer & seller riskLowHigh Fixed Price FFP FPIFBUYER RISKSELLER RISKTime and MaterialsHighCost Reimbursable CPIF CPFF CPF CPPCT&M can be a high risk for buyer if contract does not include a total not-to-exceed (NTE)Low 34. 12.1.2PlanProcurements Outputs p .1ProcurementManagementPlan Theprocurementmanagementplandescribeshowthe procurementprocesseswillbemanagedfromdeveloping procurementdocumentsthroughcontractclosure. Theprocurementmanagementplancanincludeguidancefor: Typesofcontractstobeused; Riskmanagementissues; Whetherindependentestimateswillbeusedandiftheyareneededasevaluationcriteria; Thoseactionstheprojectmanagementteamcantakeunilaterally,iftheperforming o ga at o as a p esc bed p ocu e e t, co t act g, o pu c as g depa t e t; organizationhasaprescribedprocurement,contracting,orpurchasingdepartment; Standardizedprocurementdocuments,iftheyareneeded; Managingmultiplesuppliers; Coordinatingprocurementwithotherprojectaspects,suchasschedulingandperformance reporting; reporting 35. 12.1.2PlanProcurements Outputs p .1ProcurementManagementPlan(cont.) Anyconstraintsandassumptionsthatcouldaffectplannedprocurements; Handlingtherequiredleadtimestopurchaseitemsfromsellersandcoordinatingthemwith theprojectscheduledevelopment; HandlingthemakeorbuydecisionsandlinkingthemintotheEstimateActivityResourceand DevelopScheduleprocesses; Settingthescheduleddatesineachcontractforthecontractdeliverablesandcoordina