Manganese Chloride perovskite Solar Cell by b a n c e (a. u) W a v e le n g t h ( n m ) x = 0 . 1 x = 0 . 3 x = 0 . 5 x = 0 . 7 x = 0 . 9 a 1 . 4 1 . 5 1 . 6 1 . 7 1 . 8 0 . 0 0 . 1 0 . 2 0 . 3 c E n e r g y ( e V ) [F (R) h v] 2 x = 0 .1 x = 0 .3 x = 0 .5 x = 0 .7 x = 0 .9 4 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 b

Download Manganese Chloride perovskite Solar Cell by   b a n c e (a. u) W a v e le n g t h ( n m ) x = 0 . 1 x = 0 . 3 x = 0 . 5 x = 0 . 7 x = 0 . 9 a 1 . 4 1 . 5 1 . 6 1 . 7 1 . 8 0 . 0 0 . 1 0 . 2 0 . 3 c E n e r g y ( e V ) [F (R) h v] 2 x = 0 .1 x = 0 .3 x = 0 .5 x = 0 .7 x = 0 .9 4 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 b

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<ul><li><p>Supporting Information</p><p>Towards Removal of toxicity from Lead based </p><p>perovskite Solar Cell by Compositional Gradient using </p><p>Manganese Chloride</p><p>Pallavi Singh, Prem Jyoti Singh Rana, Pankul Dhingra and Prasenjit Kar*</p><p>Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand-247667, India.</p><p>Email:kar.prasen@gmail.com</p><p>Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for Journal of Materials Chemistry C.This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016</p></li><li><p>CONTENTS: </p><p>1. Experimental Section:</p><p>1.1 Synthesis of MAI</p><p>1.2 Synthesis of MAPbxMn1-xI1+2xCl2-2x</p><p>2. Characterization </p><p>2.1 X-Ray diffraction</p><p>2.2 UV Vis Absorption Spectroscopy and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy</p><p>2.3 Diffusion Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS)</p><p>2.4 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)</p><p>2.5 Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM)</p><p>3. Figures and Table</p><p>Fig. S1 Synthesis procedure of MAPbxMn1-xI1+2xCl2-2x..</p><p>Fig. S2 (a) X- Ray Diffraction plots of the MAPbxMn1-xI1+2xCl2-2x system as a function of x (b) Enlarge view from 25-35 2 value. </p><p>Fig. S3 a) Absorption Spectra of MAPbxMn1-xI1+2xCl2-2x (b) Diffusion Reflectance Spectra of MAPbxMn1-xI1+2xCl2-2x (d) Tauc plot of MAPbxMn1-xI1+2xCl2-2x. .</p><p>Fig. S4 (a) Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. (b) Photoluminescence Spectra of MAPbxMn1-xI1+2xCl2-2x as a function of x.</p><p>Fig. S5 FESEM images of the synthesized perovskite for different values of x = 0.1, 0.7, 0.9.</p><p>Fig. S6 Weight % of constituent element in MAPbxMn1-xI1+2xCl2-2x system as a function of x .</p><p>Fig S7 Cross-sectional FESEM image showing the device structure of MAPbxMn1-xI1+2xCl2-2x (x=0.9) perovskite solar cells.</p><p>Table. S1 Elemental analysis of different composition of Perovskite. </p></li><li><p>1. Experimental Section1.1 Synthesis of MAI</p><p>CH3NH3I was synthesized by reacting 38 ml (0.3 mol) of methyl amine (33 wt.% in absolute ethanol, Sigma Aldrich), and 40 ml of hydroiodic acid (57 wt.% in water, Aldrich) in a 250ml round bottom flask at 0 for 2 hr .The prepcepitated was collected by rotatary evaporator at 60C, followed by recrystallisation with Ethanol . Recrystallisation is necessary to remove the stabilizer H3PO2 and its product with MA (MAH2PO2), Ordinary washing diethyl ether unable to remove these impurities. Presence of these impurities imparts insoluable Pb complexes formation with H3PO2 leads to cloudy precursor solution.1</p><p>1.2 Synthesis of MAPbxMn1-xI1+2xCl2-2x</p><p>Samples of general formula MAPbxMn1-xI1+2xCl2-2x (where MA = Methyl Ammonium and x= 0.1 - 1.0 were synthesized using the procedure involving solid state reaction of the involved compounds. Standard perovskite with chemical formula CH3NH3PbI3 was prepared by mixing stoichiometric amounts (1:1) of CH3NH3I and PbI2 (99%, Sigma Aldrich) finely homogenized in a mortar. The approach was extended to synthesize the Manganese based perovskite. Stoichiometric amounts of CH3NH3I, PbI2 and anhydrous MnCl2 were mixed and homogenized in a mortar to obtain a black crystalline powder. To ensure a complete conversion into perovskite and ensuring absence of impurities, the powder was then heated to 120C .</p><p>. </p><p>Fig. S1 Synthesis procedure of MAPbxMn1-xI1+2xCl2-2x.</p></li><li><p>2. Characterization </p><p>2.1 X-Ray diffraction</p><p>The crystal structure of the powder was analyzed at room temperature Cu- K radiation Powder X-Ray Diffraction (Bruker D8 Advance Diffractometer). The set included perovskite powders which were heat treated to 120C.</p><p>2.2 UV Vis Absorption Spectroscopy and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy</p><p>Shimadzu UV-Vis 2450 spectrophotometer was used for recording UV-Vis absorption spectra. Horiba scientific Fluoromax-4C spectrophotometer was used for recording photoluminescence spectra . Photoluminescence and UV-VIS measurements were performed by preparing films of the perovskite material on quartz substrate. 0.88M solution of MAPbxMn1-xI1+2xCl2-2x.was prepared in Dimethylformamide (DMF). The films were deposited on the TiO2 coated quartz samples using Doctor Blading of the solutions followed by heating the samples at 120C. TiO2 was coated on the quartz samples using spin coating. Uniform black films of the perovskite material were obtained on the quartz substrate. The samples were then used for performing the UV-VIS and PL measurements. </p><p>2.3 Diffusion Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS)</p><p>The Diffusion Reflectance Spectra of different perovskites was measured from 350-1000nm (1.24eV to 3.54eV with steps of 1nm, Varian Cary 5000 UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer). For performing these measurements, a reference of BaSO4 was used and pellets of the perovskite powder were prepared according to the sample holder.</p><p>2.4 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)</p><p> The pellets for FTIR analysis were prepared by grinding manganese based perovskite with previously dried KBr. Thermo scientific Nicolet 6700 was used for recording spectra. </p><p>2.5 Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM)</p><p>The compositional analysis was performed using energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX) imaging was performed using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM)(Carl Zeiss Ultra Plus). A cobalt standard was used for the calibration of the quantitative elemental analysis. Inert atmosphere was not used for the sample manipulations and the experiments were conducted in ambient conditions.</p></li><li><p>Device fabrication and characterizationPretreated Patterned ITO glass having sheet resistance of 15 sq-1 was cleaned through the following sequential steps such as ultrasonics in detergent, deionized water, acetone, isopropanol, and finally treated with UV-ozone for 10 min. A poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS, CleviosTM P VP AI 4083) layer was spin coated on a ITO substrates at 4000rpm for 30 sec and then substrate was anneled at 150 C for 10 min . MAPbxMn1-xI1+2xCl2-2x precursor solution (15 wt%) in Dimethyl formamide (DMF) was spin-cast at 2500 rpm for 60 s and heated at 120 C for 30 sec. PC61BM solution (20 mg/mL in chlorobenzene) was then spin-coated onto the surface of MAPbxMn1-xI1+2xCl2-2x layer at 1500 rpm for 30 s. The trace amount of solvent (chlorobenzene)in the film will continuously infilterate PCBM to form a close contact with the perovsite film underneath. Finally aluminum was deposited on PC61BM layer through a shadow mask under vacuum (ca. 10-6 Pa). </p></li><li><p>Fig. S2 (a) X- Ray Diffraction plots of the MAPbxMn1-xI1+2xCl2-2x system as a function of x (b) Enlarge view from 25-35 2 value</p><p>25 30 35</p><p>b</p><p>Inten</p><p>sity </p><p>2 theta</p><p>X = 0.9</p><p>X = 0.1</p><p>X = 0.7</p><p>X = 0.5X = 0.3</p><p>10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60</p><p>aInt</p><p>ensity</p><p>2 theta</p><p>X = 0.9</p><p>X = 0.1</p><p>X = 0.7</p><p>X = 0.5X = 0.3</p></li><li><p>Fig. S3 a) Absorption Spectra of MAPbxMn1-xI1+2xCl2-2x (b) Diffusion Reflectance Spectra </p><p>700 750 800 850 9000.0</p><p>0.5</p><p>1.0</p><p>1.5</p><p>2.0</p><p>2.5</p><p>3.0</p><p>3.5</p><p>Abso</p><p>rban</p><p>ce (a</p><p>.u)</p><p>Wavelength (nm)</p><p> x= 0.1 x= 0.3 x= 0.5 x= 0.7 x= 0.9</p><p>a</p><p>1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.80.0</p><p>0.1</p><p>0.2</p><p>0.3c</p><p>Energy (eV)</p><p>[F(R</p><p>)hv]</p><p>2</p><p> x= 0.1 x= 0.3 x= 0.5 x= 0.7 x= 0.9</p><p>400 500 600 700 800 900 1000</p><p>20</p><p>40</p><p>60</p><p>80</p><p>100b</p><p> % R</p><p>efle</p><p>ctan</p><p>ce</p><p>Wavelength (nm)</p><p> x = 0.1 x = 0.3 x = 0.5 x = 0.7 x = 0.9</p></li><li><p>of MAPbxMn1-xI1+2xCl2-2x (d) Tauc plot of MAPbxMn1-xI1+2xCl2-2x.</p><p>Fig. S4 (a) Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.(b) Photoluminescence Spectra of MAPbxMn1-xI1+2xCl2-2x as a function of x.</p><p>4000 3200 2400 1600 800</p><p>a</p><p>% T</p><p>rans</p><p>mitt</p><p>ance</p><p>x = 0.9</p><p>x = 0.7</p><p>x = 0.5</p><p>x = 0.3</p><p>Wavelength (nm)</p><p>x = 0.1</p><p>700 720 740 760 780 8000.0</p><p>0.2</p><p>0.4</p><p>0.6</p><p>Inte</p><p>nsity</p><p> (a.u</p><p>)</p><p>Wavelength(nm)</p><p> x=0.1 x=0.3 x=0.5 x=0.7 x=0.9</p><p>b</p></li><li><p>Fig. S5 FESEM images of the synthesized perovskite for different values of x = 0.1, 0.7, 0.9.</p><p>Fig. S6 Weight % of constituent element in MAPbxMn1-xI1+2xCl2-2x system as a function of x .</p><p>Table. S1 Elemental analysis of different composition of Perovskite. </p><p>Perovskite Pb wt(%) Mn wt(%) I wt(%) Cl wt(%)X=1 30.58 64.15X=0.8 24.70 2.10 62.33 2.62X=0.6 23.60 4.55 58.61 5.99X=0.4 15.08 6.98 51.70 9.0X=0.2 0.72 21.63 39.92 26.63</p><p>X= 0.1 X= 0.7 X= 0.9</p><p>0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.00</p><p>10</p><p>20</p><p>30</p><p>40</p><p>50</p><p>60</p><p>Wei</p><p>ght %</p><p> Fraction of PbI2 content (wrt MnCl2)</p><p> Pb Mn I Cl</p></li><li><p>Fig S7 Cross-sectional FESEM image showing the device structure of MAPbxMn1-xI1+2xCl2-2x (x=0.9) perovskite solar cells.</p><p>Reference</p><p>1. Y. Deng, E. Peng, Y. Shao, Z. Xiao, Q. Dong and J. Huang, Energy Environ. Sci., 2015, 8, 1544.</p><p>GlassITO</p><p>PEDOT:PSSAl</p><p>PerovskitePCBM</p></li></ul>

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