Managing the First Nuclear Power Plant Project

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  • IAEA-TECDOC-1555

    Managing the First NuclearPower Plant Project

    May 2007

  • IAEA-TECDOC-1555

    Managing the First NuclearPower Plant Project

    May 2007

  • The originating Section of this publication in the IAEA was:

    Nuclear Power Engineering Section International Atomic Energy Agency

    Wagramer Strasse 5 P.O. Box 100

    A-1400 Vienna, Austria

    MANAGING THE FIRST NUCLEAR POWER PLANT PROJECT IAEA, VIENNA, 2007 IAEA-TECDOC-1555

    ISBN 9789201052070 ISSN 10114289

    IAEA, 2007

    Printed by the IAEA in Austria May 2007

  • FOREWORD

    Energy is essential for national development. Nearly every aspect of development from reducing poverty and raising living standards to improving health care, industrial and agricultural productivity requires reliable access to modern energy resources. States may have different reasons for considering starting a nuclear power project to achieve their national energy needs, such as: lack of available indigenous energy resources, the desire to reduce dependence upon imported energy, the need to increase the diversity of energy resources and/or mitigation of carbon emission increases.

    The start of a nuclear power plant project involves several complex and interrelated activities with long duration. Experience shows that the time between the initial policy decision by a State to consider nuclear power up to the start of operation of its first nuclear power plant is about 10 to 15 years and that before specific project management can proceed, several key infrastructure issues have to be in place.

    The proper management of the wide scope of activities to be planned and implemented during this period represents a major challenge for the involved governmental, utility, regulatory, supplier and other supportive organizations. The main focus is to ensure that the project is implemented successfully from a commercial point of view while remaining in accordance with the appropriate engineering and quality requirements, safety standards and security guides. This publication is aimed at providing guidance on the practical management of a first nuclear power project in a country. There are many other issues, related to ensuring that the infrastructure in the country has been prepared adequately to ensure that the project will be able to be completed, that are only briefly addressed in this publication.

    The construction of the first nuclear power plant is a major undertaking for any country developing a nuclear power programme. Worldwide experience gained in the last 50 years would be of benefit to the countries, utilities and other organizations involved in such endeavors.

    The IAEA has collated worldwide experience and developed guidance in all aspects of managing nuclear power plant projects. This guidance was published in a number of technical documents issued during the last two decades. The present publication is aimed to select some relevant elements that provide a general overview of the main activities in managing the first nuclear power project and lists those specific publications where the reader can obtain further detailed information. Target audience is the decision makers, advisers and senior managers in the governmental organizations, utilities, industrial organizations and regulatory bodies in the countries desiring to launch the first nuclear power project

    This publication was produced within IAEA program directed to increase the capability of Member States to plan and implement nuclear power programs and to establish and enhance national nuclear infrastructure. The IAEA wishes to acknowledge the assistance provided by the contributors and reviewers listed at the end of the report. The IAEA officers responsible for this work were M. Condu, R.I. Facer and N. Pieroni of the Division of Nuclear Power.

  • EDITORIAL NOTE

    The use of particular designations of countries or territories does not imply any judgement by the publisher, the IAEA, as to the legal status of such countries or territories, of their authorities and institutions or of the delimitation of their boundaries.

    The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the IAEA.

  • CONTENTS

    1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 1

    1.1. Background......................................................................................................... 1 1.2. Objective............................................................................................................. 1 1.3. Scope .................................................................................................................. 1 1.4. Users ................................................................................................................... 1 1.5. Structure.............................................................................................................. 1 1.6. How to use .......................................................................................................... 2

    2. BASIC CONSIDERATIONS IN MANAGING THE FIRST NUCLEAR POWER PLANT.............................................................................................................................. 2

    2.1. National and international legal framework ....................................................... 2 2.2. Nuclear safety ..................................................................................................... 3 2.3. Nuclear power supply market............................................................................. 5

    2.3.1. Supply of nuclear power plants .............................................................. 5 2.3.2. Supply of nuclear fuel and fuel cycle services ....................................... 6

    2.4. Financial market ................................................................................................. 8 2.5. Economics of nuclear power .............................................................................. 9

    2.5.1. Nuclear power generation costs .............................................................. 9 2.5.2. Liabilities .............................................................................................. 11

    2.6. Safeguards ........................................................................................................ 11 2.6.1. Objective of safeguards ........................................................................ 11 2.6.2. Essential elements of safeguards .......................................................... 12

    2.7. Security of nuclear materials and other radioactive materials.......................... 12 2.7.1. Physical protection................................................................................ 12 2.7.2. Radioactive material ............................................................................. 13

    2.8. Management system ......................................................................................... 13 2.8.1. Integrated approach............................................................................... 14 2.8.2. Management system and safety culture ................................................ 14

    2.9. Regional and interregional cooperation............................................................ 14 2.10. IAEA assistance................................................................................................ 15

    3. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION STAGES..... 15

    3.1. Project stages .................................................................................................... 15 3.2. Stages description ............................................................................................. 16

    3.2.1. Stage 1: Pre-project............................................................................... 16 3.2.2. Stage 2: Project decision-making ......................................................... 17 3.2.3. Stage 3: Plant construction ................................................................... 18 3.2.4. Stage 4: Plant operation ........................................................................ 19 3.2.5. Stage 5: Plant decommissioning ........................................................... 20

    3.3. Generic implementation stages of a nuclear power plant project..................... 21

    4. PRE-PROJECT STAGE................................................................................................. 22

    4.1. Organizational structure ................................................................................... 22 4.2. Project management system ............................................................................. 23 4.3. National energy supply planning...................................................................... 23 4.4. Electric power system planning........................................................................ 24 4.5. Nuclear power plant project planning .............................................................. 25

    4.5.1. Objectives of a nuclear power plant planning study............................. 25

  • 4.5.2. Process for nuclear power plant planning study ................................... 26 4.6. Activities related with treaties, conventions and agreements........................... 28

    4.6.1. Preparation of conformity programme ................................................. 28 4.6.2. Accounting and contr