Managing Monks: Administrators and Administrative Roles in Indian Buddhist Monasticism (South Asia Research)

Download Managing Monks: Administrators and Administrative Roles in Indian Buddhist Monasticism (South Asia Research)

Post on 27-Dec-2016




2 download

Embed Size (px)


<ul><li><p> Managing Monks </p></li><li><p> SOUTH ASIA RESEARCH </p><p> series editor Patrick Olivelle </p><p> A Publication Series of The University of Texas South Asia Institute </p><p> and Oxford University Press </p><p> The Early Upanisads Annotated Text and Translation </p><p> Patrick Olivelle </p><p> Indian Epigraphy A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the Other Indo-Aryan Languages </p><p> Richard Salomon </p><p>A Dictionary of Old Marathi S. G. Tulpule and Anne Feldhaus </p><p> Donors, Devotees, and Daughters of God Temple Women in Medieval Tamilnadu </p><p> Leslie C. Orr </p><p> Jimutavahanas Dayabhaga The Hindu Law of Inheritance in Bengal </p><p> Edited and Translated with an Introduction and Notes by Ludo Rocher </p><p> A Portrait of the Hindus Balthazar Solvyns and the European Image of India 17401824 </p><p> Robert L. Hardgrave </p><p> Manus Code of Law A Critical Edition and Translation of the Manava-Dharmasastra </p><p> Patrick Olivelle </p><p> Nectar Gaze and Poison Breath An Analysis and Translation of the Rajasthani Oral Narrative of Devnarayan </p><p> Aditya Malik </p><p> Between the Empires Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE </p><p> Patrick Olivelle </p></li><li><p> Managing Monks </p><p> Administrators and Administrative Roles </p><p>in Indian Buddhist Monasticism </p><p> jonathan a. silk </p><p>1 2008 </p></li><li><p>3 Oxford University Press, Inc., publishes works that further Oxford Universitys objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education. </p><p> Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto </p><p> With offi ces in Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam </p><p> Copyright 2008 by Oxford University Press, Inc. </p><p> Published by Oxford University Press, Inc. 198 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10016 </p><p> </p><p> Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press </p><p> All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. </p><p> Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Silk, Jonathan A. Managing monks : administrators and administrative roles in Indian Buddhist monasticism / Jonathan A. Silk. p. cm. (South Asia research) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-19-532684-0 1. Monasticism and religious orders, BuddhistIndiaGovernmentHistory. 2. BuddhismIndiaDoctrinesHistory. 3. Buddhist literatureIndiaHistory and criticism. I. Title. BQ6160.I4S55 2008 294.3657dc22 2007029120 </p><p> 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 </p><p> Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper </p><p></p></li><li><p> Preface </p><p> Understanding is possible only in context; things signify only in relation to other things. Despite this indisputable and obvious fact, far too many studies of Buddhism attempt to approach its worlds of thought and practice without regard for their institutional contexts. Some relevant studies do, of course, exist, with medieval China and Sri Lanka having been particularly well treated. Indian Buddhism, on the other hand, as so often seems to be the case, has generally received less thorough attention. I therefore offer the present attempt at a systematic examination of the administrators and administra-tive roles of Indian Buddhist monasticism without apology. A more comprehensive and synthetic appreciation of the management of these institutions will no doubt be possible in the future. For now, what I offer in the following pages is nothing more than a beginning. </p><p> An anonymous reader who vetted the manuscript for the publisher suggested that this book will be considered as the Indian counterpart to Jacques Gernets famous Les aspects conomiques du bouddhisme dans la socit chinoise immediately after publication, in spite of the fact that the evidence from China is infi nitely richer than that from India. To have ones work compared to a masterpiece is a great honor. But with due gratitude for the readers praise, I did not aspire to produce an Indian parallel to Gernets work, if this is even possible with the resources available. Rather, while Gernet explored the interface between monastic institutions and </p></li><li><p> surrounding society, particularly with respect to economic relations, my focus has been much more narrowly set instead on those who direct the internal workings of the monastic organization itself. Toward this end, I have been particularly interested to discover who was tasked with taking care of the day-to-day running of the monasterywho was to make sure that monks had food available to them, that teachers had an audience, that meditators had a quiet place to sit. In modern parlance, I have been less interested here in the sermon itself, or in issues of church and state, than in who is charged with advertising the preachers appearance, preparing the hall, setting up the chairs, making the coffee, and buying the cookies. This interest, of course, did not evolve in a vacuum. </p><p> The project which has now resulted in the present book began as a chap-ter of my 1994 doctoral dissertation, which centered on the Ratnaras i-sutra .That Mahayana scripture is concerned to a considerable extent with practical aspects of the cultivation of the Buddhist path. As evidence of this concern, the text contains a lengthy discussion of the monastic administrator called vaiyapr</p><p>tyakara . In my efforts to understand what the sutra has to say about this </p><p>fi gure, I devoted one chapter of the dissertations introduction to this term. When I returned to this material some years later, I came to feel that a fuller and more contextualized understanding of this administrator and his role, and thus a more complete understanding of the sutra as a whole and the polemics in which it is engaging, could only be attained through a wider sur-vey of the administration and management of Indian Buddhist monastic insti-tutions. I chose to carry forward this investigation by means of a census of the central terms for monastic administrators or managers as they appear in the literary and inscriptional sources relevant to Indian Buddhism. I thus studied materials preserved in Sanskrit, Pali, Tibetan, and Chinese, seeking to come to terms with the range of vocabulary employed for those with managerial or administrative responsibilities. One of the things I discovered is the wide range of usages of even seemingly identical titles. This, of course, is only to be expected. By their very nature, administrative terms are local and particular; we would expect that the ways a term is used in one time and place will not map perfectly or congruently onto the ways the same term is used in other circumstances. The process of canonization and transmission undergone by our main sourcesscriptural materials, sutras, and the texts of monastic rules and procedures, the Vinayashowever, has permanently erased from view the original temporal and geographic localizations of these texts and the communities whose views and practices they refl ect. What we have available to us for the most part is a literary corpus within which original distinctions of time and place have been leveled. Our much less abundant inscriptional </p><p>vi preface</p></li><li><p>preface vii</p><p>sources and accounts of Chinese pilgrims to India, as well as older manu-script materials, allow us to correct for this erasure only in small measure. I have been able to go only as far as the sources will allow. I nevertheless hope and expect that future research will refi ne and correct the picture I have drawn here. </p><p> It would be an error if my treatment of the variety of sources available to me and my attempts to discover within diverse descriptions some common threads were to lead to the conclusion that traditional sources were confused, or that the terms and titles in question did not have concrete or clearly delim-ited meanings and uses in specifi c communities. It is much more likely instead that the diversity of depictions that has reached us hides the individuality of what were, in the beginning, distinct local usages. In addition, and from an-other perspective, it may be that different genres of literature, or different types of sources, employ terms in, once again, distinct ways. But this cannot be always and entirely the case. If it were, the administrator discussed in the Ratnaras i-sutra would be unrelated to the administrators whose roles are de-scribed in the Vinayas, for instance. We would then have to hypothesize that the Ratnaras i-sutra belonged to a community not governed by a Vinaya, which is to say, that it was composed in a nonmonastic community, something which is demonstrably untrue. There must be some relation between the worlds of the scriptures and those of other genres of Buddhist literature, inscriptions, and so on. I believe that further studies will be able to help us gain a clearer and more nuanced understanding of such problems. For the present, however, while I have remained aware of the dangers of confl ationand have duly sought in my presentation to avoid forcing one sources understanding upon anotherI maintain my faith that this type of study, gathering together a wide range of material and attempting to make some sense of it, constitutes a real contribution to our knowledge of Indian Buddhist institutions. It is not perfect, it is not complete, and it is doubtless not always correct. It is, however, an attempt to survey a fi eld hitherto rarely plowed. To follow that metaphor for a moment, it may be that my own plowing is not always as deep as it might have been, nor the furrows as straight as others might have made them. I hope, nevertheless, that what I have been able to do will invite others to culti-vate the fi eld as well. </p><p> I cherish this hope not only for the inherent interest of the subject, nor only for the central role that the study of institutions can and should play in helping us to paint a broad and holistic picture of Buddhism as a religion. The subject is also important for those more specifi cally concerned with Buddhist spiritual cultivation. For Buddhist authors themselves have debated the status of administration within the monastic community, engaging in polemics over </p></li><li><p>its value relative to meditation and study or preaching. This evident tension within Buddhist sources themselves, if nothing else, validates our attention to this topic and calls forth our efforts at understanding. </p><p> Although it began life as a chapter of my doctoral dissertation, this project took on a form similar to that it has now primarily in 20012002, during a year I was able to devote to research, supported by a Morse Junior Faculty Fel-lowship awarded to me by Yale University. For this, I remain very grateful. When I returned to the project several years later, I received valuable advice from Shayne Clarke, then a graduate student at UCLA. Richard Salomon read the manuscript for Oxford University Press, and kindly made known to me his identity when he shared several corrections and observations, for which I thank him. The work as it now stands was substantially completed in 2005, and only in one or two places have I been able to add references to studies pub-lished later. It may be, of course, that I have overlooked important works, and I hope and trust that readers will be kind enough to bring those, as well as errors, alternate interpretations, and other oversights, to my attention. </p><p> I owe my fi rst acquaintance with the Ratnaras i-sutra to my colleague at UCLA, Gregory Schopen, who alerted me to the importance of monastic in-stitutions in the study of Buddhism. Much of what I know about monastic Buddhism I learned from reading his work and from speaking with him about this and other topics over the years, and I remain grateful for his tutelage. His extensive, even unparalleled, familiarity with the monastic literature of the Mulasarvastivadins, preserved in Sanskrit and Tibetan, has produced insights and introduced discoveries of great interest. These studies allow entre to the world of Mulasarvastivada monasticism, often in a very organic and inte-grated way. </p><p> The book that I have written is designed to serve two functions. In the fi rst place, it is designed to provide, from a relatively narrow starting point, a context for the discussions of the Ratnaras i-sutra on administration and thus for what I understand as a sort of debate over the proper roles and vocations of a Buddhist monk, particularly in Mahayana sources. In the second place, it is designed to serve as a collection of materials, a resource and reference from which interested scholars might draw for their own further studies. No such collection can be complete, and this one is not. Nor can any study hope to offer every possible interpretation or suggest every interesting hypothesis. And the present study, again, does not. But I believe that it does set forth the basic sources and does introduce the main materials on Indian Buddhist monastic administration and management available so far in Sanskrit, Pali, Tibetan, and Chinese, interpreting them through comparative study and English trans-lation in all cases where this is feasible. I understand this presentation of </p><p>viii preface</p></li><li><p>preface ix</p><p> materials, in fact, to be one of the primary aims of the Oxford University Press series South Asia Research, and I owe a particular debt to the series editor, Patrick Olivelle, for the faith he has shown in my work by including it in this series. </p><p> Finally, it remains to thank my family. They played virtually no part in the production of this study, and indeed may be said to have positively hindered it at times, tempting me to go to the park or the beach instead of sitting at my desk. But truth be told, they have been astonishingly undemanding and hum-ble for years on end, allowing me extensive freedom to indulge my interests in topics they doubtless fi nd boring beyond belief. For this, I cannot thank enough my wife, Yoko, and sons, Benjamin and Oliver. </p></li><li><p>This page intentionally left blank </p></li><li><p> Contents </p><p> Technical Details and Abbreviations, xiii </p><p> 1. Introduction, 3 </p><p> 2. The Tension between Service and Practice, 17 </p><p> 3. Vaiyapr</p><p>tyakara, 39 </p><p> 4. Navakarmika, 75 </p><p> 5. Varika and Specialization of Duties, 101 </p><p> 6. *Karmadana, 127 </p><p> 7. Viharapala, 137 </p><p> 8. Momodi and Avasika, 147 </p><p> 9. Classifi ed Lists of Administrators, 159 </p><p> 10. Misbehaving Managers, 177 </p><p> 11. Chinese Terminology and Additional Indian Terms, 199 </p><p> 12. The Administered, 203 </p><p> 13. Concluding Considerations, 207 </p></li><li><p> Supplementary Note, 213 </p><p> Textual Materials, 219 </p><p> Bibliography, 289 </p><p> Index, 323 </p><p>xii contents</p></li><li><p> Technical Details and Abbreviations </p><p> All primary materials translated or cited in the following can be found in the Textual Materials or,...</p></li></ul>