mammalian phylogeny and diversity. rodentia sub-orders (mammal species of the world, 3rd ed., 2005)...

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  • Slide 1
  • Mammalian Phylogeny and Diversity
  • Slide 2
  • Rodentia Sub-orders (Mammal Species of the World, 3rd ed., 2005) Sub-orderMasseteric conditionMandibular condition Number of families / species Sciuromorpha protogomorphous (Aplodontidae), sciuromorphous (Sciuridae), pseudo-myomorphous (Gliridae) sciurognathous3 / 307 Castorimorphasciuromorphoussciurognathous3 / 102 Myomorphamyomorphoussciurognathous7 / 1569 Anomaluromorphahystricomorphoussciurognathous2 / 9 Hystricomorphahystricomorphous sciurognathous (only Ctenodactylidae) hystricognathous (rest) 18 / 290
  • Slide 3
  • Slide 4
  • "We retain Brandts (1855) names for three of the five suborders (Sciuromorpha, Myomorpha, and Hystricomorpha), whereas some foremost rodent authorities have pointedly advised against continued employment of these Brantian epithets, especially at the subordinal rank (e.g., Landry, 1999:283; Wood, 1985). They have argued that the descriptive meaning of the terms does not strictly concord with the morphologies of included members, and that this contradiction will only continue to engender confusion. That the logical connotation of a taxons name should uniformly correspond to its taxonomic intention strikes us as puzzling. Not all members of the Superorder Afrotheria live in Africa, nor are all species of the Order Carnivora carnivorous. The species- to family-group ranks are rife with valid names whose logical meaning, as intended by the original descriptor, is partially inconsistent or actually misleading in terms of the currently accepted contents of the taxon, whether in strict morphological accuracy, indication of distribution, or implication of phylogenetic alliance. In reviewing 150 years of rodent classifications, we are impressed that few of our predecessors applied the features of infraorbital configuration and jaw shape in an overridingly typological touchstone of all rodent classification. Most made the distinction between, e.g., Myomorpha in its taxic sense and myomorphy as a morphological condition and routinely consulted additional traits. Thus, the hystricomorphous Dipodidae have been nearly always included within Myomorpha (in retrospect, correctly it would seem), and the sciuromorphous Geomyoidea have been considered by many to also fit within Myomorpha (in retrospect, perhaps incorrectly). And while Brandts taxonomic names qua morphological descriptors may not perfectly correspond to all members, they nonetheless do conform very well. The core family members of Sciuromorpha, Myomorpha, and Hystricomorpha have remained largely the same, and most, not all, do exhibit those fundamental zygomasseteric structures. More importantly, these core assemblages have survived recent scrutiny using ever more explicit principles for systematic classification and sophisticated methods for inferring phylogenetic relationship and assessing descent from a common ancestor." Carleton & Musser, 2005, p. 751
  • Slide 5
  • Rodentia Sub-orders (Mammal Species of the World, 3rd ed., 2005) Sub-orderMasseteric conditionMandibular condition Number of families / species Sciuromorpha protogomorphous (Aplodontidae), sciuromorphous (Sciuridae), pseudo-myomorphous (Gliridae) sciurognathous3 / 307 Castorimorphasciuromorphoussciurognathous3 / 102 Myomorpha myomorphous (except Dipodidae, hystricomorphous) sciurognathous7 / 1569 Anomaluromorphahystricomorphoussciurognathous2 / 9 Hystricomorphahystricomorphous sciurognathous (only Ctenodactylidae) hystricognathous (rest) 18 / 290
  • Slide 6
  • Aplodontidae Monotypic (1 species) Restricted to NW US Primitive rodent Protrogomorphous- Sciurognathous
  • Slide 7
  • Sciuridae 50 genera, 273 species Worldwide except Australia and southern South America Wide range of ecolomorphs
  • Slide 8
  • GroundTree Flying Tamias Spermophilus Marmota Sciurus Tamiasciurus Glaucomys Squirrel body plans (N. American examples)
  • Slide 9
  • Tamias minimus Least Chipmunk
  • Slide 10
  • Rodentia Sub-orders (Mammal Species of the World, 3rd ed., 2005) Sub-orderMasseteric conditionMandibular condition Number of families / species Sciuromorpha protogomorphous (Aplodontidae), sciuromorphous (Sciuridae), pseudo-myomorphous (Gliridae) sciurognathous3 / 307 Castorimorphasciuromorphoussciurognathous3 / 102 Myomorpha myomorphous (except Dipodidae, hystricomorphous) sciurognathous7 / 1569 Anomaluromorphahystricomorphoussciurognathous2 / 9 Hystricomorphahystricomorphous sciurognathous (only Ctenodactylidae) hystricognathous (rest) 18 / 290
  • Slide 11
  • Castoridae 1 genus, 2 species Holarctic Semi-aquatic Specialize on cambium
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Rodentia Sub-orders (Mammal Species of the World, 3rd ed., 2005) Sub-orderMasseteric conditionMandibular condition Number of families / species Sciuromorpha protogomorphous (Aplodontidae), sciuromorphous (Sciuridae), pseudo-myomorphous (Gliridae) sciurognathous3 / 307 Castorimorphasciuromorphoussciurognathous3 / 102 Myomorpha myomorphous (except Dipodidae, hystricomorphous) sciurognathous7 / 1569 Anomaluromorphahystricomorphoussciurognathous2 / 9 Hystricomorphahystricomorphous sciurognathous (only Ctenodactylidae) hystricognathous (rest) 18 / 290
  • Slide 14
  • Muridae >250 genera, >1300 species Mice, rats, voles, hamsters, gerbils
  • Slide 15
  • Muridae: Subfamilies MurinaeOld World mice & rats SigmodontinaeNew World mice & rats Arvicolinaevoles Gerbillinaegerbils Spalacinaeblind mole-rats + 12 others!!! Alaska
  • Slide 16
  • Muridae: Subfamilies MurinaeOld World mice & rats Cricetidae!voles SigmodontinaeNew World mice & rats Gerbillinaegerbils Spalacinaeblind mole-rats + 12 others!!! Alaska
  • Slide 17
  • Rodentia Sub-orders (Mammal Species of the World, 3rd ed., 2005) Sub-orderMasseteric conditionMandibular condition Number of families / species Sciuromorpha protogomorphous (Aplodontidae), sciuromorphous (Sciuridae), pseudo-myomorphous (Gliridae) sciurognathous3 / 307 Castorimorphasciuromorphoussciurognathous3 / 102 Myomorpha myomorphous (except Dipodidae, hystricomorphous) sciurognathous7 / 1569 Anomaluromorphahystricomorphoussciurognathous2 / 9 Hystricomorphahystricomorphous sciurognathous (only Ctenodactylidae) hystricognathous (rest) 18 / 290
  • Slide 18
  • Anomaluridae Scaly-tailed squirrels 3 genera, 7 species Western-central Africa
  • Slide 19
  • Rodentia Sub-orders (Mammal Species of the World, 3rd ed., 2005) Sub-orderMasseteric conditionMandibular condition Number of families / species Sciuromorpha protogomorphous (Aplodontidae), sciuromorphous (Sciuridae), pseudo-myomorphous (Gliridae) sciurognathous3 / 307 Castorimorphasciuromorphoussciurognathous3 / 102 Myomorpha myomorphous (except Dipodidae, hystricomorphous) sciurognathous7 / 1569 Anomaluromorphahystricomorphoussciurognathous2 / 9 Hystricomorphahystricomorphous sciurognathous (only Ctenodactylidae) hystricognathous (rest) 18 / 290
  • Slide 20
  • Suborder: Hystricomorpha Africa AKA Phiomorpha Bathyergidaemole rats HystricidaeOld World porcupines Petromuridaerock rats, dassie rats Thryonomyidaecane rats
  • Slide 21
  • Suborder: Hystricomorpha South America AKA Caviomorpha Erethizontidae Chinchillidae Dinomyidae Caviidae Hydrochaeridae Dasyproctidae Agoutidae Ctenomyidae Octodontidae Abrocomidae Echimyidae Capromyidae Myocastoridae
  • Slide 22
  • New World Monkeys (Platyrrhines)
  • Slide 23
  • Erethizontidae New World porcupines 4 genera, 12 species Lowland tropics to montane forests, deserts, coniferous forests Herbivores