mammalian circulatory system

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Mammalian Circulatory System, in comparison with aves, reptiles, and fish. Animal Physiology

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  • 1.Topic: Mammalian Circulatory SystemClass Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Class Instructor: Geonyzl Lepiten-Alviola, MSBio

2. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory SystemClass Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.REPORT OUTLINE:I- Brief Introduction of the Mammalian HeartII- Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac CycleIII- Pumps: Cardiac Output and Its ControlIV-Pumps: Nourishing the Vertebrate Heart Muscle (Coronary Circulation)VI- Circulatory Pathways and VesselsVII- Vessels: Flow Regulation and HemodynamicsVIII-Pathways: Open CirculationIX- Pathways: Closed Circulation 3. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Brief Introduction on Mammalian Heart and CirculationThe Mammalian Heart has four chambers:Right Atrium, Left Atrium, Right Ventricle, Left Ventricle1) The Right Atrium and Left Atrium are reservoirs for blood (to be sentto Right Ventricle and Left Ventricle)2) The Right Ventricle and Left Ventricle are the main pumpingchambers of the heart 4. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Brief Introduction on Mammalian Heart and CirculationThe Mammalian Heart has four chambers:Right Atrium Left Atrium Left VentricleRight Ventricle 5. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Brief Introduction on Mammalian Heart and CirculationThe Mammalian Heart has four valves: two Atrioventricular Valves (AV) and two Semilunar Valves (SV)1) Tricuspid Valve an AV valve between Right Atrium - Right Ventricle2) Bicuspid Valve an AV valve, also called Mitral Valve between LeftAtrium and Left Ventricle3) Pulmonary Valve a SV valve between the Right Ventricle andPulmonary artery4) Aortic Valve a SV valve between Left Ventricle and AortaValves act as one-way doors to keep blood moving forward 6. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Brief Introduction on Mammalian Heart and Circulation The Mammalian Heart has four chambers:Pulmonary Valve Aortic Valve Tricuspid Valve Bicuspid Valve 7. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H. Brief Introduction on Mammalian Heart and CirculationOther PartsAortaSuperior Vena Cava Pulmonary Artery Sinoatrial Node Pulmonary VeinAtrioventricular Node SeptumBundle of His Purkinjie FibersInferior Vena CavaMyocardium 8. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory SystemClass Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Brief Introduction on Mammalian Heart and CirculationThe Circulation (Brief Diagram):Deoxygenated blood from the body returns to the heart via:Superior and Inferior Vena CavaRight Atrium Tricuspid ValveRight Ventricle Pulmonary ValvePulmonary ArteryLungs (the blood now comes oxygenated)Oxygenated blood from the lungs returns to the heart via:Pulmonary Vein Left AtriumBicuspid Valve Left VentricleAortic ValveAorta Body(the blood now comes deoxygenated) 9. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Brief Introduction on Mammalian Heart and Circulation 10. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Brief Introduction on Mammalian Heart and Circulation 11. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Brief Introduction on Mammalian Heart and Circulation 12. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory SystemClass Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac CycleThe cardiac cycle consists of alternate periods of Systole the contraction and emptying Diastole relaxation and fillingIn vertebrates, the atria and ventricles go through separate cycles ofsystole and diastole. 13. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac CycleHearts alternately contract to empty and relax to fill.Contraction occurs as a result of the spread of excitationacross the heart; depolarization of the muscles of the heart follows thecontraction.Relaxation follows the subsequent repolarization of thecardiac musculature. 14. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac CycleECG ElectrocardiogramThe electrical currents generated by cardiac muscle duringpolarization and repolarization spread into tissues surrounding theheart and are conducted through body fluids.A small portion of this electrical activity reaches the bodysurface, where it can be detected using recording electrodes on skin.The record produce is an electrocardiogram. 15. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory SystemClass Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac CycleElectrocardiogram- it is a recording of that portion of the electrical activity induced by thebody fluids by the cardiac impulse that reaches the surface of the body.- is a complex recording representing the over-all spread of activitythroughout the heart during depolarization and repolarization. 16. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac CycleElectrocardiogram 17. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac CycleElectrocardiogramP wave represents atrialdepolarizationQRS complex represents ventriculardepolarization.T wave represents ventricularrepolarization 18. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac CycleDepolarization a change in a cellsmembranepotential, making it more positive, or less negative. Repolarization reestablishment of polarity, especially thereturn of cell membrane potential to resting potentialAction Potential is a short-lasting event in which the electricalmembrane potential of a cell rapidly rises and fall, following aconsistent trajectory; whenever theres large depolarization amongcells Resting Potential resting event, opposite to actionpotential, comes after action potential, whenever theres a largerepolarization among cells 19. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac CycleExcitation/Activation of heart by Sino-Atrial Node (especialized auto-rhythmic cells).(animation / presentation) File name: conduction_ct.swfDownload my file at:http://www.4shared.com/rar/13zOoh6I/animal_physio_reports_ppt.html 20. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac CycleThe Full Cardiac Cycle: 1) Early Ventricular Diastole 2) Late Ventricular Diastole 3) End of Ventricular Diastole 4) Ventricular Excitation and Onset of Ventricular Systole 5) Isovolumetric Ventricular Contraction 6) Ventricular Ejection 7)End of Ventricular Systole 8) Ventricular Repolarization and Onset of Ventricular Diastole 9) Isovolumetric Ventricular Relaxation 10) Ventricular Filling 21. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory SystemClass Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac Cycle1st : Early Ventricular Diastole During early ventricular diastole, the atrium is still also indiastole. This stage corresponds to the TP interval (on the ECG) theresting stage. The AV valve is open. 22. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory SystemClass Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac Cycle2nd : Late Ventricular Diastole SA node reaches threshold and fires.Impulse spreads through out the atria and is recorded on theECG as P wave. Atrial depolarization brings about atrial contraction whichsqueezes more blood into the ventricle, causing a rise in the atrialpressure curve. 23. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory SystemClass Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac Cycle3rd : End Ventricular DiastoleVentricular Diastole ends at the onset of ventricularcontraction. By this time, atrial contraction and ventricular filling arecompleted. The volume of the blood in the ventricle at the end of diastoleis known as end-diastolic volume (EDV), which averages about135mL in humans. No more blood is added to the ventricle during this cycle. 24. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory SystemClass Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac Cycle4th: Ventricular Excitation and Onset of Ventricular SystoleFollowing atrial excitation, the impulse passes through the AVnode and specialized conduction system to excite the ventricle.QRS complex represents this ventricular excitation whichinduce ventricular contraction. 25. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory SystemClass Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac Cycle5th: Isovolumetric Ventricular ContractionAfter ventricular pressure exceeds atrial pressure and AV valvehas closed, the ventricular pressure must continue to increase before itcan open the aortic valve. Between closure of the AV valve and opening of Aorticvalve, there is a brief period of time when the ventricle remains aclosed chamber. During this time, no blood can enter or leave theventricles. 26. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory System Class Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac Cycle6th: Ventricular Ejection It is when ventricular pressure exceeds aortic pressure. Theaortic valve is forced open and ejection of the blood begins. The ventricular volume decreases substantially as bloodrapidly pumped out. Ventricular systole includes both the period of isovolumetriccontraction and the ventricular ejection phase. 27. Animal Physiology: Mammalian Circulatory SystemClass Reporter: Elino, M. M. H.Pumps: Mechanical Events of the Mammalian Cardiac Cycle7th : End of Ventricular SystoleAfter ventricular pressure exceeds atrial pressure and AV valvehas closed, the ventricu

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