major endocrine glands - abdominopelvic. endocrine glands

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Endocrine Glands

Major Endocrine Glands - Abdominopelvic1

Endocrine Glands2Major Glands in the Abdomen/Pelvis Organ Synthesize Release Target Disorder(s) (to target)3

4Adrenal GlandsThese organs are found on top (superior to) each kidney.

The adrenal glands have two sections:Cortex outsideMedulla - inside

5The Adrenal MedullaThis inner portion of the gland contains modified neurons and secretes two hormones with short term effects:

Norepinepherine (noradrenaline)Epinepherine (adrenaline)

6The Adrenal MedullaNorepinepherine and epinepherine are classified as catecholamines.

It responses to stress by increasing HR, BP, blood flow (to heart & skeletal muscles), and respiration rate. (sympathetic/fight responses)

They decrease digestive actions.


8The Adrenal CortexThis outer portion of the gland is stimulated ACTH from the anterior pituitary.

The results are long-lasting.

9The Adrenal CortexThe cortex secretes three types of hormones:

(1) GonadocorticoidsAndrogensEstrogens

Secreted until puberty

10The Adrenal Cortex(2) Glucocorticoids

Cortisol which regulates glucose metabolism and the immune system:

Promotes protein breakdown in muscle, amino acid uptake in liver (leads to glucogenesis), and suppresses inflammation

11The Adrenal Cortex(3) Mineralcorticoids

Aldosterone : which regulates minerals - especially sodium and potassium

Influences kidney tubules in nephrons to conserve sodium ions (which promotes water retention) and excretes potassium.12The Adrenal CortexAldosterone is regulated by electrolyte conservation in body fluids and the renin angiotension mechanism (RAM).13Adrenal Cortex DisordersHypersecretion: EX - Cushings disease.

Ant. Pit. secretes excess ACTH and consequently the cortex secretes excess cortisol.

Moon faceAcne/skin infectionsBuffalo hump (fat between shoulders)Fatigue14Adrenal Cortex Disorders

15Adrenal Cortex DisordersHyposecretion:

EX: Addisons Disease

Immune system does not allow cortex to secrete sufficient hormones.Consequently, Na, K, and glucose levels are decreased.BP decreasesSkin pigmentation increases (tanned appearance)No treatment = death in a short time



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